The US Government Declares War on America
By Larry Romanoff, August 17, 2022
Covert nuclear, biological and chemical experiments on the American public are not new. The US government and military have a history of at least 150 years of performing illegal, unethical and immoral experiments on live subjects at home. Countless millions of US civilians have been exposed to astonishing procedures and pathogens. According to a US Congressional investigation, by the late 1970s "at least 500,000 people were used as subjects in radiation, biological and chemical experiments sponsored by the US Federal Government on its own citizens".
These pages contain only a brief summary of the litany of illegal and immoral human experimentation carried out the by the US government and its various agencies, experiments that are by all accounts still continued today. The US government hypocritically claims the high moral ground in the area of human rights, but no nation, not even the worst of the colonial powers, has ever displayed such a consistent, despicable and utter disregard for human life.
I stated earlier that America's human rights calculus excludes any atrocities committed outside its own borders and focuses only on what happens at home. That's mostly true today, but it wasn't always like this. In fact, all of the strident and self-righteous moralising about human rights emanating from the US today is a relatively recent development that began only in the late 1970s and 1980s. Prior to that time, the CIA, every branch of the US military, many Departments of the US government, and even UN agencies like the WHO, were all very busy committing countless atrocities against the domestic US population. It was only after evidence of many of these events escaped confinement and became public knowledge that the US relocated its human-rights atrocities offshore. The increasing public outcries and dangers of civil uprising forced the US to terminate or relocate these activities and, having made this effort to clean up the mess at home, the propaganda machine worked overtime to distract the American public and deflect attention from these domestic crimes by focusing on real or imagined violations abroad. It was only at this point that the Americans "got religion" and began preaching their newly-obtained sanctity by condemning other nations for what were much smaller transgressions than those practiced at home for so long.
For more than 100 years, the US government initiated extensive programs of human experimentation that created an almost unbelievable litany of domestic human rights violations and atrocities against the American population, countless unethical experiments illegally performed on its own citizens. Few Americans seem aware of the many and long-lived CIA and US military programs of atrocities on an innocent and uninformed population, always without consent and most often with tragic results. These included an extensive program of mind-control experiments, deliberate infection with live cancer cells, syphillis, gonorrhea and hepatitis, deliberate exposure to severe radioactivity and to many forms of biological, bacteriological and chemical pathogens. The experiments encompassed brainwashing, torture, electroshock, nerve agents, drugs and exotic hypnosis experiments, surgical experiments including lobotomies, and a wide range of pharmacological "research", all conducted on innocent, uninformed and helpless civilian victims ranging from newborn babies to adults.
These experiments included the deliberate infection of people with deadly or debilitating diseases, exposure to biological and chemical pathogens, human radiation experiments, injection with toxic and radioactive chemicals, surgical experiments, tests involving mind-altering substances, interrogation/torture experiments, and a wide variety of others. Many of these tests were performed on children and mentally disabled individuals. In many of the studies, a large portion of the subjects were deliberately selected from poor racial minorities. Many were prisoners, who were given no choice in participation. Often, subjects were the sick or disabled, whose doctors told them they were receiving medical treatment, but instead were used as the subjects of harmful and deadly experiments. We will never know the total number who died.
Most of these human research programs were funded by the US government, especially the CIA, and the US military and federal or military corporations. They were highly secretive, and in most cases their existence was not discovered until they had been in operation for many years. It would be many more years before court orders under the Freedom of Information Act would cause records to be released, but by then the CIA and the US military had destroyed most of the documents. As noted elsewhere, it was only by filing and communication errors that records of some of these projects survived. We can therefore assume the available evidence covers only a minuscule portion of the violations and atrocities committed. Many of these experiments continued until the late 1990s and beyond, and many people claim - and provide evidence - that they still continue today.
The substances used - the "tools of their trade" - included LSD, heroin, morphine, Benzedrine, marijuana, cocaine, PCP, mescaline, Metrazol, ether, nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and sulfur dioxide, a variety of biological agents, sulfuric acid, scopolamine, mustard gas, radioactive isotopes, and various dioxins from Dow Chemical. They also included electroshock, synthetic estrogens, cancer cells, animal sexual organs transplanted into humans, cow blood transfusions and much more. Deliberately-transmitted diseases included syphillis, gonorrhea, hepatitis, cancer, bubonic plague, beriberi, cholera, whooping cough, yellow fever, dengue fever, encephalitis and typhoid.
And, true to their espionage origins, these studies all carried exotic names like Project MK-ULTRA, Project Paperclip, Project Bluebird, Project Artichoke, Operation Midnight Climax, Project Chatter, Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense (SHAD), Operation Plumbbob, among others.
In none of the cases above, nor in other similar events, did any of these so-called government researchers face sanction for their crimes. Instead, the Department of Defense colluded with the Department of Justice to ensure no one was ever called to account. As of 2014, not a single US government researcher had been prosecuted for human experimentation, and few victims of these US government atrocities have received compensation, or in many cases, even an acknowledgment of what was done to them. The US Justice Department has been compromised right to the level of the US Supreme Court. In 1987 the Supreme Court ruled that a US serviceman who was given LSD without his consent, as part of military experiments, could not sue the US Military for damages. This is also true for all the US soldiers who fought in the Iraq-Kuwait war, who were exposed to lethal doses of so-called 'depleted' uranium and have suffered terribly. The US government denies not only liability, but the existence of the mens' illnesses. And, so it doesn't go unsaid, in none of these cases was there any concerned discussion of "human rights".
Pentagon Records declassified in 2002 revealed that the US government and military often conducted open-air Biological and Chemical Weapons Tests on US civilians until at least the 1970s. The documents disclosed that these dozens of biological and chemical tests were far more widespread than the US military had previously acknowledged. Beginning around 1950, the US Army began a 20-year test-program that involved at least 240 open-air bio-warfare attacks on American cities that included Washington DC and San Francisco among many others. The tests included releasing deadly nerve agents in Alaska, Canada and Britain and spraying deadly bacteria over Hawaii. The CIA released whooping cough bacteria from the sea near Tampa Bay, Florida, causing a whooping cough epidemic in the city, leaving tens of thousands of people extremely ill and killing many others. The US Military also experimented with widespread dispersal of dangerous bacteria in a secret release of another strain of bacillus at Washington's National Airport and its main bus terminal, discovering that within two weeks of release the bacteria traveled to 39 different cities in seven states.
In one long-running study that continued until at least 1970, the US Navy simulated biological warfare attacks by spraying large quantities of a bacteria over a 117 square mile area of the city of San Francisco, in which many citizens died and countless contracted serious pneumonia-like illnesses. The objective of this San Francisco experiment was to see what might happen in a real germ-warfare attack. In a classified report on their experiment, the military wrote, "It was noted that a successful BW [biological warfare] attack on this area can be launched from the sea, and that effective dosages can be produced over relatively large areas". In one such test, the Military determined that San Francisco had received enough of a dose for nearly all of the city's 800,000 residents to inhale at least 5,000 of the Serratia Marcescens bacteria particles. After news of this attack became public, military sources insisted the bacteria were 'harmless", but in fact resulting illnesses were widespread, with countless thousands incurring serious urinary tract infections, respiratory infections, pneumonia and other illnesses.
According to authorities, these infections were permanent: "To this day, these bacteria are a leading cause of death among the elderly in the San Francisco area". After revelation of the tests about 30 years later, some families filed suit against the US government claiming their relatives died and many families went bankrupt trying to pay the medical bills, but US courts all the way to the Supreme Court, declared the US government was immune from lawsuits. True to form, the media and historians appear eagerly compliant in the government's quest to sanitise all of US history. In this case, the official narrative on the San Francisco Saracens experiment is that eight people became ill and one elderly man died of "other medical complications", a story very far from the truth.
In another famous study, US Army biological warfare experiments were conducted in Georgia and Florida where researchers released millions of infected mosquitoes to learn if the insects could potentially spread yellow fever and dengue fever. Hundreds of residents contracted a wide array of health problems ranging from respiratory dificulties to spontaneous abortions and stillbirths. No information was given to the public, and no treatment was offered to the ill and dying. Instead, Army researchers pretended to be public health workers, and visited the victims to collect photographs and to perform medical tests to determine "the success rate" of their experiments, with no permanent records kept, and illnesses and deaths attributed to "other causes". Albarelli wrote that, as ususal, these were densely-populated black neighborhoods, where "many men, women and children became dreadfully ill, and many died." For many years, the US Army sprayed toxic chemicals that included zinc cadmium sulfide over a large number of cities in both the US and Canada, in order to test dispersal patterns of chemical weapons. The public were never notified, and the cause of enormous number of respiratory and other illnesses was never publicly identified.
During the late 1960s, the US Army conducted an experiment they called, "A Study of the Vulnerability of Subway Passengers in New York City to Covert Attack with Biological Agents", in which they released trillions of a strain of bacillus into the subway system during the rush hour. The wind of passing trains helped to disperse the bacteria over a wide area of New York, but there is no information about the number of illnesses or deaths among the unsuspecting civilian population because the military were interested only in the bacterial dispersion patterns and took no apparent interest in the resulting health problems. This was only one of many such experiments, which were not suspended until the 1970s. The US Army acknowledged that they conducted at least 240 such tests in populated areas across the entire nation, and that US overseas territories like Hawaii, the Pacific Islands and others were repeatedly blanketed with various bacteriological organisms in order to determine the optimum dosages and placements as well as to measure effects of the weather on dissemination patterns.
In October of 2012, the AP newswire reported an astonishing chemical-radiation program which, rather than qualifying as a test or experiment, could be considered only a secret campaign of reducing the surplus poor through mass murder. It was in the mid-1950s when the US military mounted sprayers on rooftops and vehicles, and on low-flying aircraft, and proceeded to spray an entire section of downtown St. Louis and "at least" 33 other cities including some in Canada. The spray content was zinc cadmium sulfide, a rather dangerous carcinogen, mixed with various kinds and concentrations of radioactive elements, the sprayed neighborhoods being described in military documents as "densely populated slum districts" in which about 75% of the residents were black. It seems that at the time, the residents and local officials were told these were tests of a kind of "smoke screen" that could protect the residents if the Russians attacked. The US military managed to keep the secret hidden for more than 40 years before the facts leaked out.
The areas that were sprayed - and sprayed heavily - were indeed densely-populated poor areas with about 10,000 residents each, probably 75% of whom were children. In some families, all members succumbed to cancer within a short time, and there were high rates of cancer in the sprayed areas of all cities but, since no records were maintained and no follow-ups ever performed, there is now no way to know the total number of cancers and deaths that resulted. One woman lost her father only three months after her own birth and, within a few years, watched all of her siblings and a great many of her friends, neighbors and shoolmates die as well. The US military has so far refused to discuss the matter, much less admit its intent or offer compensation and, right on cue, the US National Research Council, an independent body to be sure, determined by unexplained (and inexplicable) means that these tests did not expose any citizens to harmful levels of anything, the sudden epidemic of tens of thousands of cancer deaths among poor black neighborhoods being an unfortunate statistical anomaly.
A woman named Lisa Martino-Taylor discovered the story when a colleague who had lived in that area opined that the spraying might have been the cause of her cancer, and she quickly met others who had lived in sprayed areas and who all had multiple cancer tales to tell. With that evidence, Martino-Taylor decided to research the topic for a Ph.D. thesis, and gradually uncovered the entire story. One researcher said "the level of duplicity and secrecy were shocking", that the military "clearly went to great lengths to deceive people". It is obvious the military could have utilised other means of finding subjects, but this is not a case of performing a test or controlled experiment. The spraying could have been meant only to kill, to eliminate much of the surplus poor in more than 30 American cities. There is no other explanation that would fit the facts, and atrocities like this match perfectly with so many others, Robert McNamara's Project 100,000 coming immediately to mind.
Biowarfare by the US government and military against American citizens began hundreds of years ago, and has never abated. We have all heard the stories of the distribution to native aboriginals of blankets infected with smallpox and perhaps cholera, as part of the no-longer-disputed thesis of deliberate genocide. Certainly the intent to do so is well-documented, beginning with Lord Jeffrey Amherst's letters discussing germ warfare against American Indians, richly annotated with charming exhortations to try this method and "every other method that can serve to extirpate this execrable race". Amherst's letters alone remove any doubt about the validity of the stories, and there exists sufficient credible evidence that smallpox had been raging among the residents of Fort Pitt for some time, certainly providing a ready source of contamination. In addition, William Trent, the commander of Pittsburgh's militia, produced a journal that is described as "... the most detailed contemporary account of the anxious days and nights in the beleaguered stronghold." His entry for May 24, 1763, includes the following statement: "... we gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital. I hope it will have the desired effect."
I do not know the extent to which this method of bio-warfare was actually carried out, the big surprise here being the vehemence with which groups of apologists today deny the possibility. The "yes, you did" crowd has on its side Amherst's letters plus a useful collection of circumstantial and anecdotal evidence while the "no, we didn't" group prepares doctorate-level dissertations filled with standard denials and little else. This latter group does not deny that very large numbers, possibly many millions, of natives did indeed succumb to smallpox, but claims this was an accidental result of infected settlers arriving in the New World with diseases for which the natives had no immunity. Of course, the elephant in the room is that even a few feeble but deliberate efforts to infect the natives could well have been the only source necessary to trigger the waves of smallpox that ravaged the country. That, plus the extensively documented intent to exterminate the natives by any and all means, is sufficient of itself to justify strong suspicion the stories are true.
And it wasn't only the North American natives that suffered this plague. It isn't widely known, but bio-warfare was one of the natural resources (or raw materials, if you prefer), that European explorers brought to the New World. Even 500 years ago, white Europeans displayed great enthusiasm for the extermination of the peoples in other nations, all generally deemed subhuman infestations. We shouldn't forget that the entire population of Tasmania was exterminated by these same Europeans, rendering extinct an entire race of people, hunting them down and killing them to the last man, woman and child. And for no particular reason. Closer to home, and as I've written elsewhere, Columbus' expeditions to the new world set in motion a program of genocide that covered all the Americas, exterminating more than 125 million people including the entire Maya, Inca and Aztec civilisations, as well as the Carib Indians and 98% of American aboriginal peoples. Narváez and Pizarro invaded and attacked the Aztec and Inca Empires in about 1520, both introducing smallpox as their front-line weapon of mass destruction. It was primarily the smallpox that Narváez introduced to the Aztecs that spread to Peru and so greatly assisted Pizzaro in exterminating the Inca. We can hardly argue this was accidental. American (and European, too) historians are unreasonably determined to ignore or whitewash the genocides that were inflicted throughout the Americas. History books, official government documents, virtually every information source, begins with "The unintentional yet catastrophic introduction of smallpox ...", which statement is at best wishful thinking and at worst a damned lie. We are not exactly lacking evidence of the great tactical successes of the white man's taking advantage of "the unique susceptibility" of native Americans to smallpox.
In May of 2009, James Corbett wrote an article titled "Governments and Biowarfare: A Brief History", in which he stated:
"The American government's approach to biowarfare is notable for its unabashed use of unwitting American citizens as guinea pigs in biological weapons research. The very people who helped establish the U.S. biological weapons programs openly bragged about their experiments on unwitting human test subjects. And there is no shortage of documentation proving that governments have used biological agents against their own citizens in bioterror false flag operations. It is no coincidence that two of the most well-known and devastating biological releases this decade have traced back to Fort Detrick (the home of the U.S. biological weapons research program since the 1950s and the current home of USAMRIID) and Porton Down (Fort Detrick's British equivalent). UK foot and mouth disease, and US anthrax scare."
The United States Government Accountability Office issued a report on September 28, 1994, which stated that between 1940 and 1974, the United States Department of Defense and other national security agencies used hundreds of thousands of human subjects in tests and experiments involving hazardous substances. Also in 1994, the Senate Committee on Veterans' Affairs conducted what it described as "a comprehensive analysis stretching back 50 years of the extent to which veterans were exposed to potentially dangerous substances without knowledge or consent". They produced what some termed "a damning report" concluding the Defense Department demonstrated "a consistent pattern of misrepresentation" of the hazards of its activity, and had "used" hundreds of thousands of unwitting military personnel alone, to say nothing of civilians, in bio-warfare experiments spanning at least 50 years.
Senate investigations produced substantial evidence that almost 250 populated areas of the US had been heavily contaminated with biological agents prior to 1970, with no information on the contamination since then. At that same time, the US experienced a major outbreak of the H1N1 flu strain that was apparently genetically identical to one that had disappeared more than 20 years prior, leading to the conclusion that the military had collected and preserved that strain for future application. The US military publicly admitted in 1977 that many hundreds of bio-warfare experiments had been conducted in the continental US since World War II, and that several dozen of those involved serious and potentially fatal biological agents.
For many decades, nobody in the US was safe from victimisation in these bio-warfare tests and experiments on civilians. At one time the CIA even infiltrated the drinking water supply of the FDA headquarters in Washington (I can hardly imagine a more worthy candidate for a biological experiment than the FDA) with a not altogether harmless chemical, to test its ability to poison drinking water supplies with LSD and other mind-altering agents. By 1950 the US military was actively conducting open-air tests throughout the country, experimenting with very large numbers of viruses and harmful bacteria, exposing millions of civilians to disease and death. Concurrently, the CIA was actively conducting their own experiments, using their authority to withdraw pathogens at will from the military's bio-warfare arsenal. In one of these cases in the 1950s, the CIA caused a whooping cough epidemic in Tampa Bay, Florida, to test their aiblity to infect human populations on a large scale. Whooping cough (Pertussis) was chosen because it is a highly-contagious airborne disease that spreads easily and is often fatal, especially to small children. The disease causes such violent coughing that victims can break their own ribs, the coughing spells leaving them exhausted. An enormous number of people became seriously ill, and many died, none realising their distress was visited upon them by their own government.
During the widespread public protests against the Vietnam war in the 1960s, the US military asked President Nixon for permission to test its arsenal of biological and chemical weapons against the civilian war protestors, to (1) demonstrate the "efficacy" of the chemicals and biological agents, (2) "control" the protestors and eliminate future protests, and (3) "educate people" on gas weaponry. Welcome to democracy, American-style.
The US government exposed millions of Americans to chemical and biological agents, in clandestine experiments that spanned many decades. In the 1950s and sixties, scientists from the Fort Detrick biological weapons program ran a series of tests to determine how easy it would be to expose large numbers of people to a lethal bacteria. Containers of semi-toxic bacteria were planted in the New York subway, bacteria were secretly pumped into the Pentagon (another great candidate for a biological experiment) ventilation system and clouds of bacteria were released in San Francisco. The process never stopped. In 2005, US Homeland Security released a claimed (but unidentified) "nontoxic gas" into New York’s Grand Central Station to trace the flow of airborne chemicals through the terminal. These tests were part of an experimental program originating mostly at Fort Detrick that began in the late 1940s and has not abated. During the first 20 years alone, the US military acknowledged that about 250 such tests had been conducted in which many tens of millions of civilians were unknowingly exposed. When these tests or programs were discovered, the military consistently claimed the agents employed were harmless to humans, but it has become abundantly clear over the years that many of these chemical and biological agents were far from harmless.
Many of the references to these bio-warfare experiments make reference to something called "Operation Whitecoat", which was a series of experiments conducted by the US military at Fort Detrick for about twenty years from 1953 to 1973. In these references, it is claimed the Seventh-day Adventist Church "struck an extraordinary deal with the US Army", in which the church would provide its members as test subjects to be "infected with debilitating pathogens", in return for being excused from participation in war. The story is that all participants "were informed of the purpose and goals of each project before providing consent to participate" in the program, and were assured the tests were in no way related to the development of bio-warfare pathogens. However, many knowledgeable observers have claimed the men were not only misled but coerced into participating, and there are documented records of protests, riots and sit-down strikes by these "willing and fully-informed participants" who refused to proceed without full information about the nature and dangers of the experiments. So, not so willing and informed as we are led to believe. Nevertheless, in the (propaganda) textbook titled, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (2007), the Surgeon-General reached a new level in miltary humor with claims that Operation Whitecoat "set the standard for ethics and human use in research". Also, the military claims no one died in these experiments and that "only two" persons suffered "long-term medical complications", but knowing the list of pathogens used and considering that the military refuses to declassify the records, we can be forgiven for harboring doubts.
Funding for most of these experiments was provided by the US military and the CIA, and occassionally by private corporations under contract to the military. These so-called "research programs" were typically classified Secret or Top Secret, in most cases remaining classified indefinitely, their existence usually revealed only by accidental disclosure. For various reasons, the 1970s and 1980s experienced a flood of disclosures that opened a window into a vast array of literally hundreds of unethical and criminal enterprises of brutal and often fatal human experimentation conducted by the US government against its own citizens. In spite of this, there still remain large numbers of experiments that are suspected but cannot now be proven, often because all documentation was destroyed in response to overwhelming public anger and realistic fears of political destabilisation, to say nothing of a potential flood of millions of lawsuits.
Following its grand success in obtaining the bio-warfare and human experimentation treasures from the Japanese atrocity programs conducted at Unit 731, the US government embarked on literally hundreds of these development projects, many begun by one of history's favorite morally-deformed psychopaths, US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara. One of the better-known efforts was labeled "Project 112", which number was its position in a list of more than 150 clandestine bio-chemical projects operated by McNamara against American civilians and military personnel, with funds and operating staff from every branch of the US military and intelligence agencies.
Project 112 was a series of biological and chemical weapons experiments that primarily involved the dissemination of airborne biological pathogens meant to incapacitate civilian populations, that was secretly conducted on a massive scale within the US, Canada, the UK, and in vast swatches of the Pacific and some other undeveloped countries as well. It is necessary to note that the populations in the affected areas were not notified, meaning national sovereignty was violated in all instances. The Philippines and Japan were two such locations, but there were many others including Egypt, Liberia, South Korea, and the entire Pacific, and of course the domestic populations within the US, Canada and the UK were also kept ignorant of the tests. This ignorance applied equally to US military servicemen, hundreds of thousands of whom were exposed to many pathogens with varying levels of lethality, resulting in many deaths and disabilities as was also true among the tens of millions in the US civilian population.
The tests used at least 20 different biological pathogens plus another 15 or 20 chemical agents that included Sarin and VX nerve gases, mustard gas, tear gas and other unknown substances. Many of these "experiments" were conducted on US military servicemen without their knowledge, a major portion of which was conducted in a series of shipboard trials on unwitting American sailors, the project collectively known as SHAD, or Shipboard Hazard and Defense. With project SHAD, the military initially claimed the tests were designed to identify US warships' vulnerabilities to attack, but it gradually became clear the real purpose was a search for ways to overcome defenses of enemy ships, in effect methods to guarantee the total destruction with biological pathogens of enemy naval forces at sea. One excessively ambitious effort involved attempts to literally envelop a vast section of ocean in a pervasive cloud of biological pathogens that would kill an entire enemy marine fleet while at sea.
SHAD's objective was to learn how chemical and biological warfare agents would disperse throughout a ship, and how to develop procedures that would ensure the biological contamination of an entire enemy vessel. The total number of sailors exposed to these pathogens is unknown but is at least in the many tens of thousands. Congressional investigations accused the Department of Defense of withholding or destroying documents that would reveal numbers and identification necessary for medical treatment. Retired Navy officers have accused the Defense Department of applying not only biological pathogens but also test vaccines to the ship-board crews, which latter have led to serious long-term medical problems and illnesses including various cancers. After destroying all the existing documentation, the US military then blithely claimed their (non-existent) documentation "revealed no clear evidence of long-term complications" from the tests.
McNamara ordered the military Joint Chiefs of Staff "to consider all possible applications" of these agents (against enemy nations), and to develop a coherent plan for the deployment of an "adequate" but total "biological and chemical deterrent capability", the plan to include cost estimates and an "appraisal of international political consequences". The plan was approved by then President Kennedy in National Security Action Memorandum 235 (NSAM 235), which meant it was a secret and highly-classified program directed to biological and chemical warfare against humans, animals and plants.
These were by definition very large-scale experiments that were expected to leave "significant or protracted effects on the physical or biological environment", with the military developing and testing for this program alone more than 1,000 anti-crop biological pathogens and defoliants. Accordingly, even the US Secretary of Agriculture was involved in planning and evaluating these experiments, since a major part of US biological war planning involved what was referred to as an "anti-crop capability" that would employ biological pathogens to destroy the entire agricultural capability of a country and that would include fisheries and all water-based vegetation. A vast array of pathogens were weaponised and prepared in cluster bombs for delivery to unfortunate victims. The program went so far as to search desperately for methods of inducing biological epidemics in both plant and animal populations - in addition, of course, to entirely separate methods of killing off the human population.
This vast program was the umbrella under which many hundreds of biological dispersion tests were carried out in the continental US, effectively against the civilian population. Some of these experiments involved potentially harmless strains but many others were actually quite lethal and led to thousands of deaths and permanent debilitations within large sectors of the US civilian population, the Serratia marcescens test in San Francisco being one obvious example of the latter.
We cannot fail to be impressed by the passionate determination exhibited to penetrate populations under every imaginable circumstance and condition. The US military was determined to "penetrate" everything from "arctic inversion weather systems" to "destroying the population of an island complex", from spreading pathogens over immense areas of open ocean to the penetration of "jungle vegetation". The dispersal methods ranged from massive spray generators installed in ships or aircraft to miniatures contained in briefcases.
Another similar project was Operation Dew, which consisted of experiments to test the feasibility of creating enormous aerosol clouds of biological pathogens from offshore military vessels and maintaining the clouds intact while they drifted over land to kill or incapacitate a local population. The military ran many of these, some consisting of cadmium sulfide clouds over the continental US and Canada, at least one of which dispersed and maintained a cloud of some 150,000 km² over a heavily populated coastal region that covered three US states and much of Central Canada. Other tests included clouds of various plant spores and other biological contaminants. Some of these tests were very large indeed, with one Army Chemical Corps document revealing the test area covered virtually the entire continental US, stretching from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico.
Since the victims were unaware of these projects and were unwitting participants, informed consent clearly did not exist, the document record further revealing the US Defense Department conducted many of the tests in foreign countries since they were considered too unethical to perform at home. Given the illegalities and international implications, to say nothing of the domestic deaths and injuries, the entire existence of Project 112 (and SHAD) was heatedly and categorically denied by the US military, repeatedly insisting that such a program had never existed. When a CBS news report revealed some dramatic evidence and indisputable proof of the programs, the Pentagon and Defense Department, as in most such instances, exhibited "total surprise", then made pretenses of conducting "an internal investigation" to determine if such a program had really existed - presumably, without their knowledge, somehow. Later, to mollify an enraged public, the requisite whitewashed Congressional hearings were held, after which the entire matter was quietly swept under the carpet.
The US Military's Surgeon-General's Report
The official Government text, Medical Aspects of Biological Warfare (2007), makes several interesting admissions. One is that the US tested explosive anti-personnel munitions containing anthrax on Gruinard Island near the coast of Scotland in 1942. It notes that "These experiments successfully produced anthrax among targeted sheep". In fact, the experiment was so successful the island was quarantined for almost 50 years, and was finally partially decontaminated only in 1986, using "2,000 tons of seawater and 280 tons of formaldehyde". Decontaminated or not, the island still boasts neither sheep nor humans as residents. No word on whether Scotland provided informed consent.
It also states that between about 1950 and 1970, "at least 239 open-air 'field tests' were conducted in the US in which the general public and test subjects were uninformed". These tests contained all manner of biological and chemical pathogens which were dispersed over heavily-populated areas that included Minneapolis, St. Louis, New York City, San Francisco, and several of the military's own bases including Eglin Air Force Base, Florida. The report further states that "In conjunction with the US Department of Agriculture", the military released "anti-crop agents", i.e. herbicides lethal to the nation's food supply. It states further that the open-air releases of pathogens were performed merely "to study viability and infectivity", the resulting massive flood of medical disabilities and the many deaths being either unexpected or perhaps irrelevant. However, the report notes plaintively, "These studies [performed without knowledge or consent of the victims] tainted the history of the offensive biological warfare program". We don't need an imagination to understand why.
While we can appreciate his candor, the Surgeon-General failed to record the instances where, in testing "techniques of biological pathogen dispersion" the city of Minneapolis was sprayed with germ warfare materials 61 different times in tests lasting several months, or that the "assumption" the pathogens were "harmless" may have been incorrect in light of the enormous increase in respiratory illnesses experienced in the dispersal areas in and near Minneapolis. He also failed to record the test with the foolish code name of "Big Tom", where the Department of Defense sprayed the entire population of Oahu in 1965 with a bacterium while practicing simulated (and hoped-for) attack on Cuba. He also failed to note that Big Tom caused big infections in tens of thousands of people, particularly those young, elderly, or ill with weakened immune systems.
The Surgeon-General informs us further that, included in these other environmental field tests, the military did indeed conduct many "controversial studies" that were meant "to determine whether African Americans were more susceptible ...". They were.
Finally, the report tells us that "Public disclosure of the testing program in the Washington Post on December 22 , 1976, and in US Senate hearings in 1977 resulted in harsh criticism ...". No idea why. But then we are told the CDC investigated the matter of the US military poisoning the population and concluded that in 100 outbreaks of one particular dangerous bacterium, "none was caused by the [favorite strain used by the military], and the vast outbreaks of illnesses by the same bacteria were simply unfortunate accidents caused by "opportunistic pathogens". In a further attempt to unblemish his record, the Surgeon-General also claims that "Numerous unsubstantiated allegations were made" about the US using biological pathogens against North Korea and China, and swears truly that "Biological weapons have never been used by the US military", but that the US State Department "suspected" China, Russia and Cuba to have done so. No information on whether those suspected releases by China, Russia and Cuba might also have been attributable to other opportunistic pathogens.
As a side note, in 1978 the US Department of Defense admitted that, despite a Presidential order and an international treaty banning the research and development of biological agents, it continued to operate research facilities at 127 sites, institutions and universities around the nation, and an unspecified number (but around 100) in other nations. Lastly, one researcher provided this gem:
"An extract from a U.S. Army report details why smallpox was selected as the agent of choice." Its "attractive" features are listed as: 1. Smallpox is highly infectious with close contact. It spreads readily from an infected person to susceptible individuals. 2. A long incubation period of relatively constant duration permits the operatives responsible to leave the country before the first case is diagnosed. 3. The duration of illness for those who recover is relatively long."
Nuclear Radiation Experiments
When Dwight Eisenhower became the US president, he ordered the Atomic Energy Commission "to keep Americans confused" with explanations about nuclear radiation causing cancer, and any government employees who told the truth were fired. It was not until the 1980s that the truth about the widespread radiation experiments were partially revealed. At the time, a US House of Representatives Subcommittee concluded, "All evidence suggesting that radiation was having harmful effects was not only disregarded but actually suppressed". This was a time when the US government told its soldiers that it was safe to march into atomic test sites immediately after a nuclear explosion. The enormous number of victims included civilians, prison inmates, federal workers, hospital patients, pregnant women, infants, developmentally disabled children and military personnel. It has been documented that as many as 500,000 US military personnel were contaminated during their compulsory participation in various nuclear tests and the post-war occupation of Japan. A great many of them died, and a much greater number suffered from radiation poisoning, leukemia and various cancers.
Beginning in the 1940s, the US government released massive amounts of various radioactive substances into the air, ground and water over almost 100,000 square miles in Washington, exposing hundreds of thousands of civilians to deadly radiation. One event, inexplicably named "Project Chariot", perhaps for the legendary mythical vehicle that transports us to heaven, the US Atomic Energy Commission spread huge amounts of radioactive materials over Point Hope in Alaska, causing so many genetic deformities that even today, more than 50 years later, cancer is still the leading cause of death in Point Hope. The government kept the radiation releases secret, and repeatedly lied about them for more than four decades until part of the truth escaped in 1986. A secret document from the Atomic Energy Commission titled "Medical Experiments in Humans" stated: "It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits. Documents covering such fieldwork should be classified Secret."
Researchers in the United States have performed thousands of human radiation experiments to determine the effects of atomic radiation and radioactive contamination on the human body, generally on people who were poor, sick, or powerless. Most of these tests were performed, funded, or supervised by the US military, Atomic Energy Commission, or US government agencies. The experiments included a wide array of studies, involving things like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children or conscientious objectors, inserting radium rods into the noses of soldiers, deliberately releasing radioactive chemicals over US and Canadian cities, injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals, and irradiating the testicles of prison inmates, amongst other things. It was only in 1994 that the US government formed its investigative Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments - due entirely to public outcry.
Beginning in the late 1940s, researchers at the University of Rochester injected uranium-234 and uranium-235 into people to study how much uranium their kidneys could tolerate before becoming damaged. During the 1950s and 1960s, atmospheric nuclear explosions in Nevada, which were part of Operation Plumbbob were later determined to have released enough radiation to have caused as many as 200,000 excess cases of thyroid cancer amongst US citizens who were exposed to fallout from the explosions.
During the 1950s and possibly much later, the US Atomic Energy Commission sponsored research whereby young boys were fed breakfast cereal heavily laced with radioactive materials so researchers could record the effects. The parents were told their children were being fed a special diet rich in iron. Beginning in 1945 and continuing at least until the late 1970s, the US government arranged the injection of plutonium and uranium into patients at many hospitals, including those at Chicago, San Francisco and New York. None of the victims were either informed or able to give consent, and didn't know the content of the injections. Few survived.
Beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, the US Atomic Energy Commission began an extensive study of the health effects on humans of fluoride, a key component of nuclear bomb production. For more than ten years, residents of New York and US other cities were exposed to fluoride in their drinking water, with their blood and tissue samples covertly gathered and analyzed. The study discovered that fluoride was one of the most dangerous aspects of nuclear weapons production and had extreme adverse effects on the central nervous system. The US government quickly suppressed the information in the name of "national security", from a fear that lawsuits by workers contaminated with fluoride would undermine full-scale production of nuclear weapons.
Until at least the 1970s, the US Department of Defense was funding non-consensual body radiation experiments on poor, black cancer patients who were told they were receiving a treatment that might cure their cancer, but in reality the Pentagon was attempting to determine the effects of high levels of radiation on the human body. One of the doctors involved in the experiments, Robert Stone, was worried about litigation by the patients, so he only referred to them by their initials on the medical reports, so that "there will be no means by which the patients can ever connect themselves up with the report", in order to prevent "either adverse publicity or litigation".
Only in the mid-1990s did the US government finally release thousands of documents relating to human radiation experiments where the government paid research institutes for information about the effects of heavy doses of radiation on humans, to learn how military personnel might be affected by a nuclear blast. These experiments were conducted at universities all across the US including New York, California and the University of Rochester. The documents revealed that government agencies had conducted more than 400 separate radiation experiments on almost 20,000 unwitting American citizens, claiming there was no way to know "the full result" because in most cases "the government kept no record of the victims' names".
And the US government's position on this? "While the experiments raised questions of medical ethics, they led to some medical breakthroughs." One US official praised the tests, saying they were instrumental in diagnosing and treating thyroid problems, heart disease, cancer and other conditions. And then we have the requisite - and obscenely dishonest - US government hypocrisy:
"We are grateful to these families for the tough lessons they have taught us about trust, responsibility and accountability between the government and the people."
Beginning in the 1950s, the US military conducted about 100 above-ground nuclear weapons tests in Nevada, New Mexico and Guam, which exposed millions of Americans, particularly children, to large amounts of radioactive fallout which was simply released into the atmosphere. This exposure was greatest in the immediate area, but prevailing winds carried the deadly radiation for thousands of miles throughout most of the US, much of Canada and Mexico, these innocent citizens paying a very high price for the development of the US nuclear weapons program. It wasn't only the above-ground atomic tests, but massive radiation releases from American atomic weapons production plants such as Hanford in Washington state, that contributed to the problems.
Much of the radiation collected on pastures and grasslands where it was consumed by cows and goats and collected in the animals' milk with the result that children were at the highest risk of developing various cancers. There is no certain way to know the numbers of American citizens who died from various cancers and other illnesses caused by the radiation from these tests, but millions of American families even to this day have a history of thyroid problems, especially those from the hardest-hit areas of the country. Certainly many tens of millions were affected in total, and the resulting deaths may have been in the millions as well, many contracting related health complications but without accurate diagnoses.
One researcher named Steinglass claims that many millions of children were damaged by nuclear weapons fallout, as well as the nuclear reactor radiation releases, with studies now confirming that the widespread contamination was much greater than the government had ever admitted. After releasing the results of his research, Steinglass was immediately sanctioned by the government and lost all his research funding. His research found that the radiation, in addition to causing the obvious cancers and higher incidences of thyroid disease, was also strongly correlated with lower national intelligence test scores, low birth weight, immune system suppression, and higher infant mortality. In fact, US infant mortality began a strong rise in the 1950s after the commencement of these tests, but began to exhibit an immediate decline after nuclear testing went underground. It is a good guess that these tests continue today in some form, that they are at least in part responsible for the astonishingly high infant mortality rate experienced in the US even when compared to many other less-developed nations, and the fact that the high mortality rates are found primarily among minorities and the poor. This may also shed light on the apparent lack of concern by the US government and health services for the high infant mortality rate: it may not be accidental nor a result of poor health care, and is not being addressed because it is the known result of deliberate ongoing tests.
Suspicions of this radioactive contamination of the population have existed for decades, but information has been virtually impossible to obtain due to resistance from the US government and to the fact that the military deliberately maintained few records of the fallout from its test results. It is only today that information is slowly being released by the authorities, in particular on the 24 areas of the nation that received the most extreme radiation and where the exposure was 100 times more than first reported. The US government and military have of course always known of the dangers and effects of their atomic tests, but suppressed all information for 60 years, simply acknowledging today that some people "may have been adversely affected or sickened" as a result of the radiation exposure. The US Atomic Energy Commission was worried about the release of incriminating information immediately after its first few tests, and secret memos now reveal discussions and agreement to withhold information "to avoid possible embarrassment", so no public reports were ever released.
But the evidence is that the US government and its public health agencies knew from the beginning that atmospheric nuclear tests would result in exposures and deaths for countless thousands of unwitting and trusting Americans. One victim said, "We who have watched our families and friends sicken and die, we've known for 40 years that the government has lied and covered up the shameful truth that fallout was deadly, nationwide." The tragedy is not only of the radioactive contamination but the callous withholding of information from an unsuspecting and trusting public. It is clear that the US government was fully aware of the strength and geographic extent of the radioactive fallout, from many newly-released documents. At the same time, the Public Health Service was instructed to tell citizens downwind from nuclear bomb tests that the increases in cancers were due to neurosis, and that women with radiation sickness, hair loss, leukemia and brain cancer were suffering from "housewife syndrome".
Here is one perfect example of the callous, heartless and obscene nature which has always pervaded the US government:
The Kodak company began receiving customer complaints about fogged film, the cause of which was quickly traced to corn husks from Indiana that Kodak used as packaging material for its film. A Kodak physicist discovered that all corn husks were heavily contaminated with radioactivity. After this, the US government agreed to provide Kodak with advance information on all future nuclear tests, including "‘expected distribution of radioactive material in order to anticipate local contamination". Unfortunately, the population were not provided with the same 'advance notification' as were Kodak's corn husks, the people not being relevant to corporate profits.
The victims now tell us, "In fact, the Government warned the entire photographic industry and provided maps and forecasts of potential contamination. Where, I ask, were the maps for dairy farmers? Where were the warnings to parents of children in these areas? The Government protected rolls of film, but not the lives of our kids. Why did they do that when they had all the information about hot spots and fallout, and yet they did not warn the people of this country about the dangers inherent in radioactive fallout? Why has the government withheld information until now? It is reprehensible that our citizens were intentionally exposed to radioactivity and yet those who knew remained silent - even in the face of evidence that said if we provided treatment and information early, we might alleviate suffering or prevent diseases."
We really have to pity these Americans who, in spite of the overwhelming evidence, cannot bring themselves to accept the truth that their government didn't inform them of the radioactivity because they were the guinea pigs in the tests. The painful deaths of those millions of children were not accidents from above-ground nuclear tests; they were the purpose of the tests.
The cover-up extended far beyond 'not warning' the population. Upon some information becoming public, both the government and the National Cancer Institute not only deliberately withheld information but engaged in misinformation, deflecting attention to only Iodine-131, claiming it had a half-life of only 8 days and was therefore of no real concern. But the authorities ignored other fallout ingredients like Strontium-90 and Cesium-137 that had half-lives of 30 years or more and have the same toxic effects on the human body. They also claimed that hospital patients had been given "far higher" therapeutic doses of Iodine-131 and that there had never been proven any correlation between this radioactivity and cancers or other illnesses. Thirty years ago a group of Americans sued the government for damages resulting from these tests, but the high US courts refused to grant relief. Today, the US Congress recognises "a national day of remembrance" for these citizens who "deserve to be recognized for the sacrifice they have made for the defense of the United States". What else is there to say? The deranged US military and the "democratic" American government didn't kill millions of their own people and sicken countless millions of others by their criminally insane and reckless experiments, but rather generous American citizens willingly "made a sacrifice in defense of their country". Touching. And the country was being defended against what? How pathetically dishonest and hypocritical to make such a claim.
In addition to the atomic bomb blasts there were hundreds of other lethally-radioactive weapons tested, which were apparently designed to "contaminate enemy battlefields", and in 1959 the US Air Force secretly conducted eight intentional nuclear reactor meltdowns, melting highly-radioactive nuclear fuel in high-temperature furnaces, then using enormous fans to spread the radiation in attempts to learn the results of actual reactor meltdowns.
On Feb. 12 2001, Deseret News published an article on Dugway, listing some of the many hundreds of radiation, chemical and biological events that served to contaminate much of that state and indeed much of America, and noted that much new and secretive military testing continues even today. The article noted that US Energy Department records show the US military conducted 141 atomic bomb explosions at their Nevada Proving Grounds alone, and these tests were "only a small portion of the 930 tests (both above and below ground) conducted there through 1992". It has been proven possible, and perhaps even likely, that the prevailing winds during these test explosions carried lethal radioactive fallout to virtually every area of the continental United States.
The article also mentioned one case as an example of many, that of Oleta Nelson and her husband Isaac, who on May 19, 1953, gathered outdoors with their neighbors to watch a fallout cloud from what was later proven to have been a particularly dirty nuclear explosion. Apparently no one worried because the government falsely told residents it was safe. By that evening, Mrs. Nelson suffered a headache that refused to abate for more than six months, and within weeks her hair was falling out. She had developed brain cancer and would suffer terribly for years before dying. As in all such cases, the courts ruled the government was immune from suits for actions it made for national defense, and was not liable for compensation to any of the victims. And privately, members of the US Congress have admitted they refused to make the victims of military tests eligible for compensation "because it simply would be too expensive". In other words, the US military killed and injured so many American citizens in their tests, that the government wouldn't have enough money to pay all the claims. Welcome to freedom, democracy and human rights, American-style.
And it isn't only within the US that the military performed these nuclear tests and exposed innocent and unknowing civilians to extremes of radiation. The Americans did the same in the Pacific after World War II, conducting above-groud nuclear explosions in various of their new "possessions" in the South Pacific, one of these being the Marshall Islands where the US performed about 70 of these tests, ravaging the islands with lethal radioactivity. On the Pacific atoll of Bikini, the entire land mass was, according to an article in the NYT, "so radioactive that there was little hope of allowing its displaced population ever to return home". According to the same article, the Defense Department concluded that there was so much contaminated soil it couldn't be cleaned so they left it to decay naturally. Some radioactive elements have a half-life of only 30 years, but "the US also left behind plutonium-239, which has a half-life of 24,000 years."
The article detailed further that the US gathered much of the severely radioactive soil, dumped it into a nuclear bomb crater, then covered it with a thin concrete cap that didn't even meet American standards for landfills for household trash. Then, they permitted the displaced residents to return home, but "about half the atoll was still uninhabitable and most of the rest had lost its ability to grow food". Nuclear authorities warned that the dome could easily be breached by a typhoon, but the US military saw no reason to worry because the island was apparently more radioactive outside the dome than on the inside, so even "a total breach wouldn't significantly change the radiation dose delivered to the local resident population". And of course the radiation is escaping and spreading, and plutonium has been discovered in the South China Sea, 4,500 kilometers away. US authorities provided no data on cancers, leukemias, radiation sickness and deaths resulting from their reckless mishandling of this enterprise.
It's even much worse than I've described above. The nuclear explosions at the Marshall Islands were part of military Project 4.1, a medical study conducted on the natives of those islands, "to see what would happen". William Boardman wrote an excellent article on these tests that was published by the Information Clearing House on January 11, 2014. The article is still available and is worth reading. The following paragraph is a syopsis of his article:
In the 1950s, the U.S. conducted 67 atomic and hydrogen bomb tests in the Marshall Islands, vaporizing islands and exposing entire populations to fallout, while contaminating in perpetuity an enormous area of the beautiful South Pacific. The islanders received near fatal doses of radiation from one major test, and were then moved onto a highly contaminated island to serve as human guinea pigs for 30 years. The story was classified top secret until the 1990s, and has remained largely unknown to the world because the people living on the Marshall Islands have no microphone. As a measure of lethality, the CDC reported that the Chernobyl reactor meltdown released 40 million curies of radiation, the largest US above-ground nuclear test in Nevada released 150 million, while one blast over the Marshall Islands (the largest one) released 6.3 billion curies - more than 30 times as much radiation as the others combined. One of the bombs detonated was more than 1,000 times as powerful as that used on Hiroshima, resulting in generations of cancers and birth defects. One writer stated, In 1979, a federal court awarded the Islanders $750 million in compensation but the US government simply refused to pay. Movie director Adam Horowitz produced a documentary titled "Nuclear Savage" his second film attempt about the American military use and abuse of the Marshall Islands, but the authorities have worked feverishly for years to prevent the movie from being broadcast on public television. The aftermath consists of millions of square kilometers of uninhabitable land and usuable ocean, generations of children with cancers, very high rates of miscarriages and stillbirths, so many cases of heartbreaking birth defects, all so the US military could obtain "better data on this method of maiming and killing people". One writer said, "This cynical act by the U.S. government was conducted with such arrogant racism that without incredible archival footage and shocking secret documents, the story would seem unbelievable."
It was similar with the 1979 disaster at the nuclear plant at Three Mile Island, which involved a partial meltdown of the reactor, a hydrogen explosion and the venting of massive amounts of radioactive gases as well as the dumping of huge volumes of heavily contaminated water into a major source of public drinking water. The entire episode was a flurry of coverups and denials, long sequences of false statements informing the public there was no danger, no radiation releases and no need to evacuate civilians. US authorities also propagated the misinformation that no deaths or illnesses resulted from the acccident. All these claims were bitterly false. Infant mortality jumped by almost 55% immediately after the accident while the incidence of most adult cancers doubled or tripled, and long-term childhood cancers and birth defects were up to 35% higher. In one study, Gould and Goldman estimated at least 50,000 to 100,000 deaths resulted directly from this nuclear accident, but the US government was entirely silent, leaving the citizens to fend for themselves however they were able. Just as with the the multitude of deaths, cancers and other diseases from the planned nuclear explosions, the truth was heavily suppressed.
Buttressed by a myth heavily flogged by the media, popular opinion in the US is that Three Mile Island was the worst nuclear disaster in the country, but that was never true. There were others that were far worse but that were heavily suppressed by the authorities and totally censored in the press. In 1959, Rocketdyne's Santa Susana nuclear laboratory, located only 30 miles from Los Angeles, suffered a meltdown where enormous amounts of radioactive material, primarily the most toxic elements of plutonium and strontium, were vented into the open air for more than two weeks before the catastrophe was discovered. The technology of the time was incapable of measuring the vast amount of vented radiation, but one five-year study by a group of scientists concluded the radiation released from Rocketdyne's lab was 460 times that released at Three Mile Island, in this case contaminating the entire San Fernando Valley. Several studies have proven greatly-elevated incidence of cancers, but all levels of government and military have obstructed any attempts to learn the truths or to obtain medical assistance or compensation. In the official record, this event never occurred.
And these nuclear meltdowns were by no means the only ones. From the middle 1950s to the late 1960s at least four other reactors suffered explosive and catastropic meltdowns; The Borax-1 military reactor, the military's EBTR-1, the military's Stationary Low-Power Reactor No. 1 and the FERMI-1 reactors all suffered meltdowns, several with explosions and most with many deaths. But again, these events were heavily censored by the government and appeared noplace in media reports and to this day most people are unaware they occurred. There were others, too, and these others were not accidents. The US military, unsatisfied with the information obtained from accidental meltdowns, staged five or six deliberate reactor meltdowns, causing the explosions that would melt the reactor fuel and open the facilities to the atmospere to vent the radioactive gases into the environment. None of these were announced, were classified as Top Secret, with the resident populations having no understanding of the great increases in cancers and a host of other illnesses that befell them.
There have been various Congressional hearings, some books and articles written on this topic, but in every case the US government - which means the White House and those powers pulling its strings - have wherever possible simply denied events and liability. One statement that is typical of many, said, "There is no scientific reason to expect that any of the subjects ... will incur any harmful effects. Therefore, there is neither any reason for attempting any further follow-up studies on these subjects, nor to propose new legislation to compensate them." And most often, when information was leaked, the first response of the government was to stonewall and deny. Only if the mass media were willing to pick up the story and there was a danger of widespread public rebellion would the government act. Senator John Glenn, he of moon shot fame, conducted a long enquiry into some of these secret experiments and produced a report which he delivered to the White House. Glenn stated, "The response of the Reagan administration to my 1986 staff report can be described as, "Thanks for the information, we're not going to do anything"." The full extent of the US government’s experiments on unsuspecting people will probably never be known because many incriminating documents remain Top Secret or classified. Other documents are often declared as missing, destroyed, or "unavailable", in an attempt to hide the truth from the public.
Michael McCally, Christine Cassel, and Daryl Kimball produced an article on "U.S. Government-Sponsored Radiation Research on Humans 1945-1975", which is available online and worth reading. The document lists repeated occasions, from the early 1940s until at least 1965, of "intentional release of [a radioactive element] to the environment", where the general American population were viewed simply as experimental subjects. The authors made reference to a book by Barton Hacker, who was an historian working for the Department of Energy, which makes clear that "early radiation scientists had a much clearer idea of radiation health effects, including cancer, than present apologists allow". They wrote that "Given the harm that was evidently done, the likelihood of litigation, and public concern about environmental radiation contamination, it is likely that this story will unfold [only over a great many years], that officials will hide behind a false veil of "national security" as long as they are permitted to do so.
This is yet one more appropriate time to ask the question, "Who is actually running the country?", when the US Congress, the ostensible government of the people, has no power to obtain information or force compliance from what is obviously the real government. Who are these people, who can conduct these secret tests that expose so much of the American population to illness and death, then simply classify or destroy their records and refuse to account for their actions? Who is actually running the country?
From their article:
"In 1982, the New York Times provided evidence that policy-makers foresaw dangers and acted to cover them up. The story included a statement by a former Army medic, Van R. Brandon, of Sacramento, that his medical unit kept two sets of books of radiation readings at the Nevada Test Site during the 1956-57 tests. One set was to show that no one received an [elevated] exposure, Brandon told the paper. The other set of books showed ... the actual reading. That set was brought in a locked briefcase every morning, he recalled. DoE officials simply denied Brandon's allegations, and no further investigation was pursued. From the beginning of the nuclear age, the federal government not only ignored or suppressed knowledge of abuses in the nuclear experimental program, it also fought all attempts to hold it accountable for damages. A series of Supreme Court decisions dating back to 1950 bars both atomic veterans and downwinders from suing the federal government. Veterans are denied the right to sue for injuries suffered while on active duty because the Court believes that this would interfere with military necessity and national security. In essence, the court held that setting off nuclear bombs was within the discretionary power of high-ranking officials and could not be questioned in a lawsuit for damages.
Government doctors and scientists brainwashed the public into believing low dose radiation was not harmful. Totally ignored was the knowledge that the radiation from nuclear fallout could lead to an increased risk of cancer, heart disease, neurological disorders, immune system disease, reproductive abnormalities, sterility, birth defects, and genetic mutations which could be passed on from generation to generation. The full extent of this radiation damage to the American public during the Cold War years will never be known. Amazingly, these clandestine studies were conducted at the most prestigious medical institutions and colleges, including the University of Chicago, the University of Washington, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Vanderbilt University in Nashville, and the previously mentioned universities."
The historical record is also being sanitised by claims that the on-duty physicians "may have had no idea what they were injecting into their patients", a claim that is patently ridiculous. These were not junior medical students performing routine functions on order of their superiors; they were senior military and other doctors who absolutely would not participate in such procedures without knowledge. No physician, then or now, will accept a syringe from someone and proceed to inject his own patients without any knowledge or information. The physicians were also instructed to obtain x-rays in "a normal way" so as to arouse no suspicions with the patients, and were cautioned about entering any of the resulting data in the patient's medical records. They knew what they were doing, and were taking pains to leave no tracks. They were also instructed to send all records directly, and only, to those in the Manhattan project to guard against any of the information entering the hospital's record system and therefore perhaps becoming public.
In addition to the group exposures where radioactivity was dispersed over widespread populated areas, there were thousands of cases of the military and the government using individuals or groups of individuals in specific experiments designed to illuminate the toxicity or lethality of those materials. There were so many experiments with pregnant mothers who were fed radioactive elements to determine transmission through the placental barrier or the effect on an unborn fetus, with almost certain guarantees of stillbirths, genetic deformities or spontaneous abortions. Groups of individuals in prisons, hospitals, sanitaria, orphanages, were used as free test material for every experiment imaginable, all done in secrecy and without the knowledge of the victims. Often, after administering elements like plutonium, the doctors would extract several of a patient's teeth, or a rib, to determine the extent to which these elements would concentrate in teeth and bones. None of the victims understood what was happening to them.
In many cases, radioactive elements were administered to humans simply to test instruments that measured radiation. In effect, hundreds of people, especially children, were injected with lethal radioactive carcinogens simply to be used to calibrate instruments, with no therapeutic intent. In what appears to be literally thousands of other cases, large groups, and again especially children, were fed large doses of radioactive material simply to study the effects on the human body, and in so many cases the intent was actually to do harm. Many radioactive elements were known to damage beyond use the kidneys and liver, and the physicians would inject increasingly larger amounts until the damage appeared. In some instances, they wanted to learn the dosage at which organ damage began to appear, but in many other cases they were looking to determine the dosages at which organ failure would occur. Trusting patients would be deliberately injected with radioactive toxins at dosages meant to destroy their critical body organs, which would necessarily result in death. Many of the tests and studies were unquestionably designed to do harm.
Often, the hospitals would use homeless people, inviting them to consider the hospital as a residence where they would have a bed, good food, and make a contribution to medical science by dying. Often, the doses these victims would receive - at one time - would be 30 to 40 times, and even 100 times the maximum permissible annual amount, sufficient to fry almost anything. Sometimes, physicians would inject an arm or leg with large amounts of plutonium or a similar element, then amputate the limb and send it for testing to determine the extent to which these elements were "bone-seeking". In every case, some vacuous excuse would be made to justify the amputation, often blaming the amputation on a "suddenly-discovered" cancer, the patients again having no understanding of what was happening to them. In one case of a 36 year-old man named Elmer Allen, military doctors injected large amounts of plutoniun into his leg, then amputated it several days later on the pretense of pre-existing bone cancer. Twenty years later, officials tracked down the man and subjected him to whole-body radiation experiments and ran tests to determine the amount of plutonium remaining in his body from his earlier experiments. The man never did learn what happened to him.
In another case, a 58-year old California man suffering from a stomach ulcer was injected with doses of plutonium equivalent to 450 times the maximum lifetime exposure, the doctors telling his family he had advancced cancer and had only a few months to live. They even published reports on their findings. When released documents accidentally revealed the facts of this case, the authorities refused to release any information on the grounds that to do so "might adversely affect national security". Countless hundreds, and perhaps countless thousands of prison inmates and hospital patients would have their testicles injected with high amounts of radioactive material to determine the dose at which radiation would render an individual sterile. In one case, about 60 small children were injected with radioactive iodine to study its effect on the thyroid. There was never any follow-up, though most of those children would have developed cancers.
The official story is that the original criteria for these tests specified that subjects should be of older age, meaning relatively short life expectancies, apparently to mitigate the magnitude of the crimes. The people they killed by these experiments had only ten years to live anyway. However, in many of the cases, the original diagnosis of the patient having a terminal disease later proved to be inaccurate. According to the records, these mis-diagnoses were not uncommon, leading one to suspect they may not have been entirely accidental. And indeed, many patients were not selected according to short life expectancy but were instead chosen by the main criterion which was normal functioning of the major body organs, especially the liver and kidneys. The terminal cases where the patients died soon after the tests, were especially valuable because much useful information could be obtained from an autopsy.
The patients selected generally had life expectancies of ten or more years, but were often described in the medical reports as "hopelessly sick" or "terminal" when they were no such thing. And certainly some patients were "mis-diagnosed", those who were suffering from no serious medical condition but were termed terminal anyway. It is a valid question whether those mis-diagnoses were accidental or deliberate, since it is not easy to determine a terminal illness where no illness exists. The media literature glosses over this a bit too quickly, claiming judgments about life expectancy are difficult to make even today. If these determinations are so difficult to make "even today", then they were much more difficult then, which should have led to more caution rather than less. The researchers surely knew they were guessing. Some patients were admitted for ulcers, then sent into the plutonium injection wards.
The cold-blooded callousness sometimes exhibited, staggers the mind and the senses. In one case where a patient was mis-diagnosed and found to have a benign tumor rather than a malignant cancer, and would therefore leave the hospital and end his testing, the authorities schemed for ways to keep him in the study by paying for his stay in a convalescent home or even offering him a part-time job in the hospital as a way to continue injecting him with radiation. In this successful case, the doctor wrote, "His sister was a nurse and he was very suspicious of me, but to my knowledge he never found out."
It was interesting that in 1995, the US Department of Energy (i.e., the US Nuclear Department) published a "Roadmap of Human Radiation Experiments" that summarised almost 500 experiments it had conducted over several decades by exposing unwittiing American citizens to unlimited amounts of nuclear radiation, the so-called 'roadmap' in turn citing a 1986 Congressional report titled, "American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens". Both essentially described "Experiments on individuals involving intentional exposure to ionizing radiation", with the added feature of the deliberate intention to "test the extent of human exposure to radiation", i.e., until death do us part. So nice to live in a democracy founded on human rights. (AHRP)
Chernobyl. Or, Maybe Not
In addition to the deliberate and accidental population-irradiating incidents above, there was an interesting event that occurred in the NorthWestern US and Western Canada, in the Spring of 1986. That was the time of the explosion at the nuclear power station in Chernobyl, in the Ukraine, where the meltdown released large quantities of radioactive particles, contaminating the atmosphere of Western Europe and perhaps spreading farther. It was then that Canadian government scientists discovered high levels of nuclear radiation existing in Western Canada's lakes and drinking water reservoirs. The contamination was at first naturally attributed to Chernobyl, but it was then discovered that the radiation in Canadian waters was "dirty", consisting of things like Cobalt and Iodine that are not found in nuclear reactors.
Further investigation revealed the source. Some time prior to the accident at Chernobyl, the US military had conducted an underground nuclear test in the Western US, in which something untoward had occurred and had damaged all the measuring instruments. The authorities badly needed to learn what had gone wrong, but the only path to that information was to open the hole and release all the radiation in order to recover the instrumentation. But exposing the civilian population to that much radiation was politically too dangerous to contemplate, so a problem with no solution until, like the answer to a prayer, Chernobyl appeared. After patiently waiting for the Chernobyl radiation to spread in the earth's atmosphere, and after some promotion in the compliant media about the possibility of that radiation spreading as far as North America, the US military opened the hole and released the radiation from their failed test, contaminating the entire NorthWest of the US and a large part of Canada. They not only salvaged their test, but gained the invaluable propaganda feature of being able to smugly blame that lethal blanket of radiation on the failure of communism. Not only the answer to a prayer but an unexpected and hugely profitable propaganda coup. Well done. And no leakage of the truth ever reached the media, the entire event being heavily censored in the US.
I became aware of that event, did a bit of my own research, and wrote a letter that was published in what was at the time called the Manchester Guardian Weekly, a small but rather influential international onionskin newspaper. Very shortly thereafter, two interesting happenings:
One, I received a call from a woman, apparently in Toronto, claiming to be a "self-employed nuclear disaster consultant", the first time I'd heard of such an occupation. As a credential, she told me she had been retained as a consultant to advise the US government on the nuclear disaster at Three Mile Island, a surprising revelation considering the massive cover-up of that disaster. Her story was that upon reading my published letter, the Americans called her to ask if she had leaked the information to me (as if she would have known of a secret failed military test) and, if not, insisting she contact me to salvage her endangered reputation by learning my sources and reporting back. It was a perfect story, with all her details unverifiable, and one that reeked with the stink of the CIA.
The other happening was that I received a surprising amount of hate mail from loyal Americans all over the US, condemning me in rather graphic terms for suggesting their democratic, human-rights-infested government would ever stoop so low as to endanger its civilian population for the sake of a minor military mishap and a small treasure-box of propaganda.
Taking Out the Trash
There is one other not-so-minor item I should include here, oddly relating to the plague of piracy that occurred in the ocean near Somalia after about 2010. Most readers will recall the flood of media stories of ocean pirates in small boats venturing into the seas to hijack commercial ships for ransom. One part of that story that somehow escaped the Western media is that those pirates were converted fishermen, and that the main reason they were no longer fishermen was that the seas bordering Somalia were heavily contaminated with nuclear radiation and that fish were either non-existent or dangerously inedible. The reason, and the reason for the vengeful piracy, was that the US government, looking for a safe place to store tens of thousands of barrels of highly toxic nuclear waste, discovered a convenient depository in the ocean bordering Somalia where the Americans dumpled all those barrels, many of which were old and leaking and many of which broke open on reaching the ocean floor, thereby contaminating everything including the fish. The piracy was largely payback, and Somalia isn't the only place in the world's oceans where the Americans have dumped toxic and lethal nuclear and chemical waste.
The Americans' usual method is to load an old and useless ship right to the gunwales with nuclear (or chemical) waste, sail the ship to a predetermined location, and scuttle it. Though this kind of information never passes the media censors in the US, the American military have done this so often they even have a name for it - Operation CHASE - the name being Pentagon shorthand for "Cut Holes and Sink 'Em." In many locations around the world, the US has sunk ships, either by opening shuttlecocks to permit seawater to enter, or by detonating explosives, these vessels containing everything from thousands of tons of nerve gas or mustard gas, surplus or defective mines and bombs, radioactive waste and, on occasion, other pathogens. In most every case, nobody knows, and those who do know would lose their lives if they spoke of it. If America ever needed another public Congressional hearing, it would be to reveal all the locations of these disposals and, in many cases, the payment of immense compensation to other nations. One more reason countries like China, Russia, Korea, don't want American ships anywhere near their ocean borders. It doesn't help to know that the waste is dumped in "international waters" when those waters are only 12 miles from your shore.
In total, public records alone reveal the US military sunk at least 100,000 tons of munitions and chemical warfare weapons in various sections of both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans; almost certainly there were more that did not make the public record. As well, this program may have been a cover for illegal underwater nuclear detonations that were banned by treaty at the time. In one case in 1964, the USS Village, supposedly containing a typical load of about 8,000 tons of munitions, was towed out into the Atlantic and sunk. However, shortly after sinking, three massive detonations occurred that registered on seismic equipment all over the world, explosions far too large to have resulted from the stated content of conventional explosives.
The US Declares War on its Own Military
Covert experiments by the US government on its own military personnel are not new. For at least the past 70 years, the US military has used its servicemen as laboratory animals in conducting illegal and inhumane experiments. From at least the 1940s until today, ex-military patients in US Veterans Administration hospitals were used as test subjects under many circumstances, without their knowledge or consent. Millions of US servicemen have been deliberately exposed to biological pathogens, nuclear radiation of various forms, medical substances and other procedures, all without their knowledge or consent. The admission of these appears only after many decades of secrecy and some are still denied. With the extensive destruction of records, much of the truth will never be known. Among the experiments conducted are the witholding of necessary treatment to see what happens. In order to disguise what is being done to these American veterans, authorities were ordered to substitute the words "investigation" or "observation" for "experiment" when reporting the results.
In the 1940s, about 60,000 military personnel were used as human subjects in chemical tests of mustard gas and blister gas. These subjects were not informed of the nature of the experiments and never received medical treatment. For fear of publicity and a public outcry, these victims were threatened with imprisonment if they discussed the experiments with anyone, including their wives, parents, and especially forbidding mention to family doctors. For decades, the Pentagon denied that the research had taken place, resulting in decades of suffering for many veterans who subsequently developed long-term illnesses. In the 1950s, the US Military conducted chemical warfare experiments on more than 7,000 soldiers at its Edgewood Arsenal in Maryland, replicating poison gas trials done in German concentration camps by IG Farben.
For 20 years or more, the US military ordered about 250,000 servicemen into very near ground zero to observe nuclear explosions, in addition to another 200,000 who were part of the US occupation force in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In all cases, men were ordered into the area almost immediately after the blast, the men receiving assurance the radiation was not harmful. In some tests, the soldiers were exposed in small bunkers only one mile from the actual blast, some reporting the odor of burning flesh, and certainly some died. These tests were much more powerful than those at Hiroshima, and even at several Kms from the target everyone would receive third-degree burns and there would be almost no survivors, yet US military reports claimed "the observers suffered no adverse effects", while refusing to release any documentation on the tests. There was no scientific, or even military, justification for the forced exposure of these men, especially in such large numbers. The Defense Department was simply sacrificing soldiers in dozens of attempts to learn the incidence of illness or death from exposure to nuclear explosions.
The US military did the same repeatedly with flight crews and aircraft, ordering the men to fly through the mushroom clouds within minutes after an explosion. By the time the full mushroom cloud was formed after a blast, the aircraft were already in position to penetrate it, and were flown through both the 'heads' of the mushroom cloud and the 'stems', simply in attempts to determine the amounts of radiation exposure and the effects. As a measure of the danger, the maximum annual dose of radiation was considered to be about the equivalent of 250 chest x-rays, but the men flying through the mushroom clouds received more than three times this amount in the space of a few minutes. Moreover, this recorded radiation level was the maximum the mens' radiation badges could register; the actual radiation in the blast clouds was measured at levels 50 times higher than that recorded on the badges, yet the military reported no medical follow-up on the exposed aircrews. We can assume they didn't want to know. In some cases, the total radiation levels in the clouds were reported to have been 800 times greater than that recorded on the badges.
By late 2013, crew members from the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan were suffering serious radiation-related illnesses after conducting operations off the coast of Japan in 2011. The crew members were apparently drinking and bathing in heavily radioactive desalinated water with no warning and no protection. Former Navy Quartermaster Maurice Enis said it was after more than a month of radiation exposure that the ship was scrubbed down and sailors offered radiation protection, but that the officers had received protective idodine much earlier. In an interview with the Huffington Post he also claimed "They had us sign off that we were medically fine, had no sickness, and that we couldn't sue the US government", even though many displayed alarming signs of radiation poisoning. The attorney representing these men says more than 75 sailors have testicular and thyroid cancers, leukemias, rectal and gynecological bleeding, brain tumors, and some who had perfect eyesight are now going blind. Some crew members have already died, and females have given birth to infants with multiple genetic defects. The article claimed both the US and Japanese governments are in a major conspiracy to conceal the true facts.
From the 1960s onward, as part of Project Shipboard Hazard and Defense, the US Military sprayed naval vessels with various biological and chemical warfare agents, while thousands of US military personnel were aboard the ships. The personnel were not notified of the tests, and were not given any protective clothing. Chemicals tested on them included the nerve gases VX and Sarin, toxic chemicals such as zinc cadmium sulfide and sulfur dioxide, and a variety of biological agents. In 1950, the CIA initiated Project Bluebird, later renamed Project Artichoke, whose stated purpose was to develop "the means to control individuals through special interrogation techniques". Project Bluebird researchers in Maryland fed doses of LSD to more than 7,000 US military personnel without their knowledge, with more than 1,000 of these developing various psychiatric illnesses and epilepsy as a result, and many committing suicide.
In Vietnam, the US military, in full possession of documented evidence of the toxic nature of the chemical, exposed hundreds of thousands of its own soldiers to the lethal dioxins of Agent Orange, persuading them it was harmless to humans. Being a liquid, soldiers would spray each other with it to cool off on hot days. Countless thousands of American soldiers returned from Vietnam suffering horribly from the effects, with so many wives experiencing miscarriages and children born with birth defects. True to form, the US government denied everything for two decades and, when proof was irrefutable, offered these crippled and deformed survivors $100 per month for ten years - or until they died. Widows would receive a maximum of $3,700. Monsanto spokesman Jill Montgomery, a lovely and sincere lady to be sure, claimed Monsanto carried no liability for these casualties, saying "We are sympathetic with people who believe they have been injured and understand their concern to find the cause, but reliable scientific evidence indicates that Agent Orange is not the cause of serious long-term health effects." And US judge Jack B. Weinstein dismissed a class-action lawsuit on the multiple grounds that there was no basis for any claims and that the US government had "sovereign immunity" in any case. To add insult to injury, the same court ruled that the Chemical companies, primarily Monsanto and DuPont, were contractors of the US government and therefore shared their immunity.
The US military also subjected many war veterans to undergo forced lobotomies in experimental attempts to control what is today considered the psychological trauma of war, many of these victims being very young men who were having trouble dealing with the horrors they experienced. In each case, the US government assured the families these men would be returned to 'normal' behavior but who instead became vegetables, leading to generations of recriminations and regrets. Lawsuits are still pending in many of these cases. For the record, this wasn't the first or last time the US government attempted this procedure. As we will see later, lobotomies were a favorite method for neutralising political dissidents in America in the 1970s and 1980s.
The US government has for many decades used the "state secrets" excuse to cover itself from liability for its mistakes. In one famous case in 1953, some widows whose husbands had died in a military aircraft crash sued the government for negligence, but met a stone wall when the government refused to release the accident report on the grounds that it would disclose vital information about secret military equipment. When the report was declassified 50 years later, it contained no mention of any military equipment, secret or otherwise. There are many hundreds of these cases spanning 80 years or more, each involving a cover-up of, occasionally, error, but most often to hide negligence or criminality. There were also major issues when both military parents had died, leaving orphaned children, who, to the US military, were now "free" test subjects and who were often used in cruel medical experiments. Most of these small, helpless, and already badly traumtised children were callously employed as laboratory material by people completely devoid of a sense of either ethics or humanity. Many of these children died, or committed suicide later in life.
Declaring War on the Gulf Warriors
Since the first Gulf War in Kuwait, hundreds of thousands of US troops have suffered from exposure to various nuclear waste that was used against Iraq, resulting in widespread cancers and leukemia, badly-deformed childbirths and a variety of other illnesses resulting from the American use of biological and chemical weapons. At a cancer center in Houston, Texas, a Dr. Garth Nicholson discovered that many of these returning soldiers were infected with a genetically-altered strain of Mycoplasma that was clearly man-made and commonly used in the production of biological weapons. In spite of this, and other overwhelming evidence, the US government denied the use of any of these war materials, and refused either medical treatment or compensation to its soldiers. There appears to be little question that the severely debilitating illnesses and cancers these men experienced, were a direct result of this exposure, but the US military denied not only responsibility but the existence of the diseases themselves.
US soldiers during the Gulf Wars were forced under federal law to take experimental vaccines, the law stipulating that soldiers cannot refuse participation in the military's medical experiments. Jessica Horjus, a member of the US Air Force, refused to take an anthrax vaccine before being sent to Kuwait, because the vaccine had accumulated thousands of reports of adverse reactions ranging from headaches and vomiting to severe autoimmune and neurological problems. Despite this and despite four years service and commendations and Good Conduct Medals, her commander demoted her and cut her pay in half. When she refused additional orders to take the vaccine, she was dishonorably discharged from the US military. Others who have refused the vaccinations have been imprisoned, and many threatened with up to 10 years in prison. Soldiers, citizen groups and members of Congress have demanded that Defense Department officials cease the vaccinations, but to no avail. The US military is determined to accumulate statistical and biological experience with its weaponised anthrax, and requires test subjects, both for the disease and for various treatments or immunisations.
The US is infinitely the worst country at using its own population, and especially its military personnel for lethal experiments on humans, and has exhibited little hesitation in "out-sourcing" these experiments to other nations. In early 2014 the US (Jewish-owned) media totally suppressed reports of the end of a long battle in which Jewish soldiers in Israel finally won compensation from the courts for having been deliberately exposed to anthrax in military tests. Between 1999-2005, the Israeli Defense Ministry and the chemical and biological weapons institute at Nes Ziona collaborated with their American counterparts who apparently were unwilling to do live tests but found their Israeli colleagues more than happy to oblige. The experiments were considered so sensitive that the supposed volunteers, many of whom claimed to have been pressured into participating, were not told what they were being injected with, nor warned of the many side effects that included kidney failure. They were further threatened with punishment for speaking about the project. The Israeli Medical Association issued a scathing report of these violations, which it claimed were done to serve US interests. According to foreign reports, Israel shared the findings from these experiments with the US military in return for hundreds of millions in additional "research" funding.
The recent American wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have also taken their toll in other ways. Since the US entered these wars, more than two million US troops have been deployed. The reporting of American war deaths is now illegal, as is all video showing American bodies returning home, and deaths are under-reported. In addition to the deaths, more than 100,000 have been wounded with another 1.5 million requiring medical care. And while 400,000 veterans have sought mental assistance, more than 200,000 are living with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Over two million veterans are eligible for benefits with 600,000 already receiving federal disability. The savage barbarity that has engulfed American soldiers has also led to a massive increase in suicidal tendencies. The US government claims to have rescued 20,000 suicidal veterans, while thousands of others have committed suicide from their inability to live with the atrocities they committed at the instruction of their own government.
In spite of the number of American soldiers receiving treatment, many hundreds of thousands more have been studiously ignored, the US government steadfastly refusing to recognise their illnesses or even admit the existence of them. This applies to the severe mental and emotional disturbances resulting not from battle stress but from atrocities committed. As well, the many victims, certainly numbering in the hundreds of thousands, suffering from exposure to depleted uranium, are not only ignored but the US government flatly denies having used such munitions in the face of overwhelming evidence of their guilt. Countless thousands of American soldiers have experienced the same tragic birth defects in their own children as seen by people in Iraq, Afghanistan and Kuwait, but are left to their own devices to cope.
American servicemen who served in Afghanistan, and during the Gulf War in Kuwait and later in Iraq, have consistently and in very large numbers claimed to have been unknowingly exposed to large amounts of chemical and biological pathogens as well as lethal radioactive dust from depleted-uranium munitions. In spite of an enormous amount of direct and circumstantial evidence, the US military continues to steadfastly deny having employed any of these munitions or materials and has refused almost all medical care or disability pensions, or indeed any compensation, to these people. One problem in receiving treatment is that these veterans all claim, "We were lined up in front of the medical facility and made to sign waivers attesting to "not having been exposed to anything harmful" and these papers were PART of and KEY TO outprocessing that base, i.e. going home.". In other words, the US military not only forced each soldier to ingest unknown medications, but to sign a legal waiver of any government liability as a condition for ending a tour of duty and being able to return home. That constitutes coercion and extortion on a grand scale, and leaves war veterans with no recourse.
This large collection of illnesses has been collectively catalogued as "Gulf War Illnesses", which the US military attributes entirely to "stress" or "battle fatigue", implying these are simply psychological disorders experienced by the less than mentally fit. But the symptoms, according to the best medical minds in America, do not fit any such categorisation and would in fact be impossible as the results of stress. As well, virtually to a man, these soldiers deny that their participation in these wars was at all stressful, and refuse to accept that stress in any form played a part in their conditions. To further underscore these claims, a great many of these Gulf War veterans have transmitted their symptoms and illnesses to their immediate family members, to the workplace, and to other civilians as well. Moreover, treatments with medications that address exposure to chemical and biological agents have proven successful in a large number of cases in eliminating the symptoms and the illnesses, a result which would be impossible if the conditions were merely stress-induced.
The symptoms, such as chronic fatigue, Fibromyalgia, and chemical sensitivities appear to conform to chronic illnesses caused by exposure to various chemical and biological agents. "In addition to chronic fatigue, the soldiers have suffered headaches, memory loss, muscle pain, nausea, gastrointestinal problems, severe pain in joints and lymph nodes, memory loss, and other symptoms that included heightened sensitivities to various environmental agents as well as enhanced allergic responses. None of these are typically recognisable as stress-related symptoms, and none would be infectious or transmittable to others if they lacked a physical and medical basis." The US military flatly denies that any symptoms have been transmitted to others, yet a US Senate investigative report concluded that a large number of Gulf War veterans do indeed have transmittable infections and that the families of these veterans have developed the same chronic infections in about 45% of all cases.
The US sent nearly two million soldiers to the Persian Gulf for the Gulf Wars, with a large percentage subjected to an experimental nerve agent which is later believed to be one of the causes of Gulf War Syndrome. The Defense Department at first attempted to lay the blame on Iraq's chemical and biological facilities which were destroyed during the wars and which, it was claimed, released these toxins. However, it was later easily proven that Iraq had no such facilities of any consequence and, in any case, more than a third of all US soldiers suffering from these disabling illnesses had never left the US during either war, leaving the entire liability resting on the medications and vaccinations administered to the troops. Civilian medical investigators are unanimous in concluding these Gulf War illnesses are the result of exposure to multiple toxins from chemical, radiological and biological sources, which category would include the forced experimental vaccinations applied to these servicemen prior to their tours of duty. In fact, many servicemen who would not have been in position to be exposed to the other toxins or pathogens, are convinced it was the vaccinations themselves that induced the illnesses they now face. The US military refuses to discuss this matter as well.
In spite of the military's consistent denials, it is an established fact not in dispute by the servicemen or the medical profession that vast numbers of chemical and biological exposures occurred during the Gulf War, and that the chronic and systemic conditions existing today are the natural result of these exposures. One such agent consists of a group of intracellular pathogens like mycoplasmas that affect a person's immune system and trigger unusual auto-immune effects very much like the Gulf War symptoms, and it is precisely the mycoplasmas that the military is accused of having employed and dispersed in large amounts. Medical experts believe the proven existence of large-scale mycoplasmal blood infections in these veterans, would explain most of their symptoms and illnesses. Certainly the US military had been working on enhanced mycoplasma strains for many years, and clearly achieved some success since the US Armed Forces Institute of Pathology obtained a patent on mycoplasmas in June 1991. And as early as 1975 or 1976, the city of Huntsville, Texas experienced a serious outbreak of an apparently altered form of mycoplasma, that many observers concluded had resulted from a covert government experiment originating at a Texas military installation.
Dr. Garth Nicolson is one of the medical experts testifying in this arena. He is the Chief Scientific Officer and Research Professor at the Institute for Molecular Medicine in Huntington Beach, California, with a CV of credentials too extensive to list here. It was primarily his testimony that opened this matter to public debate, since his qualifications essentially placed him beyond impeachment. In November of 1998, Dr. Nicolson testified before a Congressional Committee on the matter of the Defense Department's treatment of the Gulf War Illnesses. It was Dr. Nicholson's work that discovered perhaps half of Gulf War veterans had been infected with "an altered strain of Mycoplasma incognitus", one that was commonly used in the production of biological weapons, and whose molecular structure contained portions of an HIV protein coat, proving irrefutably that it had been made in a lab and was part of a genetically-engineered bio-warfare agent.
And this was where the lies began in earnest. The Defense Department testified to Congress and stated to the media that this type of mycoplasma infection was very common, not at all dangerous and would not even qualify as a human pathogen. Dr. Nicholson stated that "These statements could not be further from the truth", that the US military Health Sciences "had been teaching its medical students for years that this type of infection is very dangerous and can progress to system-wide organ failure and death", and that "the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) has been publishing for years that this type of infection can result in death ...".
Dr. Nicholson documented his success in treating these illnesses, stating it was only those antibiotics active against mycoplasmas that produced positive results, producing prima facie evidence that these biological organisms were the source of the Gulf War illnesses. Dr. Nicholson stated flatly that the "DoD is still trying to bury the issue of infectious diseases and GWI", repeatedly referring to military statements with comments such as : "This is not the truth."; "These are complete distortions and untruths.". He also made the point, as have many others that, during the rather brief Gulf War offensive, chemical weapons alarms sounded more than 14,000 times, the military later dismissing this with a claim that the equipment "produced many false positives" and that no chemical or biological weapons were used.
Nicholson also discussed the vaccinations, testifying that soldiers were given "multiple inoculations, in some cases with experimental vaccines in unproved immunization schemes", stating that the untested and unproven vaccines given simultaneously could easily result in immunosuppression. He further noted that these "experimental" vaccines were contaminated (whether accidentally or deliberately, he did not specify) and that many lots of these vaccines had to be destroyed due to the "microorganism contamination".
Five years later, Dr. Nicolson uncovered evidence proving that the biological agents used during the Gulf War, and to which hundreds of thousands of soldiers were exposed, had been manufactured in Houston, TX and Boca Raton, Fl and tested on prisoners in the Texas Department of Corrections. Finally in 1996 the Department of Defense admitted that Desert Storm soldiers had been exposed to chemical agents dispersed by the US military, stating the US FDA (Food and Drug Administration) had granted the US military a "waiver of the Nuremberg Code", thereby permitting the use of unapproved drugs (and weapons) and vaccines that were used in Desert Shield. This was an astonishingly ludicrous claim, since the FDA has no authority to waive international treaties. A year later, about 100 members of the US Congress presented a demand for an investigation into Gulf War Syndrome and the US military's bio-weapons use, a demand which produced no result of which I am aware.
But even with the revelations and admitted complicity of the US government, the military and CIA, and hundreds of prominent American hospitals and universities, the victims have largely been left to fend for themselves without treatment or compensation, the US courts generally ruling that the government and all its agencies are immune to prosecution. And even to this date, not a single individual has been prosecuted for participation in this immense travesty of human rights violations.
There is one more aspect of this matter that the Western media have taken extraordinary pains to bury, to prevent the topic from even entering public consciousness. And this issue is the devastating horrors visited on the citizens of those nations listed above, since it wasn't only US servicemen who were exposed to depleted uranium, dioxins and all the chemical and biological pathogens. Iraq alone has millions of civilians who were exposed to a wide range of these horrors, quite apart from the tragedy of the war itself, with the US government and the entire Western world pretending this matter doesn't exist. But it does exist, even though the New York Times doesn't care to tell you about it. Once again, the value of free speech depends entirely on who controls the microphone.
Not only have the victims not received compensation or treatment, in almost all instances the government has refused to even acknowledge what was done to them. This applies perhaps especially to members of the US Armed Services who were not only used as unwitting subjects in an enormous variety of chemical, biological and radioactive experimentation, but were knowingly subjected - en masse - to debilitating and often lethal doses of chemicals and radiation on the battlefield. This occurred after Hiroshima and Nagasaki as well as during the hundreds of nuclear test explosions conducted by the US military on American soil and around the world, when American soldiers were repeately sent in immediately following a nuclear test, without protection or warning. The same occurred during the war in Vietnam where government and military authorities were fully aware of the lethality and genetic horrors from exposure to dioxins like Agent Orange, exposing potentially millions of soldiers to these deadly poisons.
It occurred again in Operation Desert Storm and the wars in Iraq, Afghanistan and Jugoslavia, where soldiers were widely exposed to the effects of depleted uranium and various biological agents that were proven to have been man-made. In all the above cases, the cancers, multiple other serious illnesses, hideous birth defects and much more, are simply denied even today, the military refusing even to admit its use of depleted uranium in spite of the overwhelming evidence.
Researchers using military patients in veterans hospitals as test subjects for human medical experiments, were ordered to never use the word "experiments", but to describe their activities as "investigations" or "observations" in all medical reports, to avoid future public recriminations. One document classified as "Secret", stated, "It is desired that no document be released which refers to experiments with humans that might have an adverse reaction on public opinion or result in legal suits.", leaving no doubt the government was aware of the risks to both military personnel and civilians. This is a pattern to which the US government has steadfastly - and inexplicably - adhered for many decades.
A great many US war veterans still suffer from various cancers caused by the dioxins in Agent Orange that was used so freely in Vietnam, many even becoming ill long after the war from flying in aircraft still contaminated with heavy traces of the chemical. Most are still battling the US military and government for treatment and compensation, which the authorities refuse to provide. For Vietnam veterans, the Huffington Post reported in 2015 that of 900,000 Vietnam soldiers who applied for health caren, about 300,000 have already died without receiving any assistance.
In 1994 Senator John D. Rockefeller issued a report revealing that for at least 50 years the Department of Defense had used hundreds of thousands of military personnel in human experiments, with intentional exposure to a vast array of dangerous substances that included mustard and nerve gas, nuclear radiation, psychochemicals, hallucinogens, as well as drugs and vaccines used during the Gulf War. Yet it was only in the late 1990s that the military admitted, under enormous pressure from Congress and after substantial public exposure in the media, that "maybe 20,000" Gulf War veterans "may have been exposed" to chemical and biological weapons in Kuwait and Iraq, but that belated recognition did not lead to either further disclosure or to medical treatment or compensation. At the time, Congress demanded of the White House and military a full public investigation into bioweapons used and the mulitple resulting illnesses of Gulf War Syndrome; Congress was ignored.
It was not only the US military's use of biological and chemical weapons in the Gulf, but of proven claims that the medications and vaccines administered to hundreds of thousands of soldiers were responsible for much of the epidemic of illnesses. But the military's refusal to even admit, much less accept liability, was based in part of a claim that the FDA had approved military use of unapproved drugs and vaccines, and had "waived the Nuremberg Code" for the US military during the Gulf Wars. This is one branch of the US government disabling hundreds of thousands of its servicemen with biological, chemical and radioactive material, then disclaiming liability on the grounds that another branch of the same government gave it permission to do so. It would be difficult to uncover a more perfect example of specious and deceitful reasoning.
And this wasn't the first time. In 1942, the US military developed a vaccine for yellow fever that was also meant to protect soldiers against smallpox, tetanus and typhoid. The vaccine was untested, unlicensed for use, and a safe version of this vaccine would prove to be more than ten years in the future. Moreover, the vaccine had been reported to cause jaundice and other medical problems, but the military decided to use it anyway, unleashing the largest single outbreak of Hepatitis B ever recorded, infecting hundreds of thousands of soldiers.
The US government's position on compensation and medical treatment since the 1940s has been one of denying, ignoring, resisting and stonewalling until all the claimants eventually die, and this has been as true with civilian casualties as with military. Even in cases where virtually the entire medical community has documented the causes and origins of these illnessess, and where Congressional investigations have confirmed the liabiliy, the White House and military refuse to cooperate. Instead, they present innumerable roadblocks and delaying tactics, often resorting to pressuring the judiciary and Department of Justice to refuse claims. The White House and the military have relied heavily on the judicial system to avoid liability. In one case, a US Army Sargeant sued the military for subjecting him to drugs without his consent or even his knowledge, and the great US Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia wrote the final ruling that no serviceman had a right to sue the US military on the grounds that these illnesses or injuries were "service-related". This was essentially the same excuse the military used after sending thousands of soldiers directly into ground zero immediately after a nuclear blast. The servicemen were being used in an abominable experiment to discover the radiation effects on humans of a nuclear blast, but they did so in the line of duty as a soldier.
Deleted from American history books and buried in the mists of time, though that time ended only yesterday, is an entire encylopedia of the most inhuman violations of citizens - of the general public, of individuals, of children, pregnant mothers, patients, prisoners, military personnel, institutionalised individuals and more. A great many of these human experiments were performed on individuals while others, some vast in scale, were executed on the mass public often involving millions of citizen victms. Most were performed by civilian and military medical doctors almost entirely for military purposes; a few were in the supposed interests of medical science. While books have been written on individual programs or lists of various atrocities, I am not aware that the truths of these events have ever been assembled and presented together in one place, to permit an overall view of the entire picture. I shall attempt to do so here. This assembled picture is dismaying, to say the least.
As an example, there was a period from about 1935 to the middle 1960s when frontal lobotomies were all the rage in the US. The process appeared contagious, many prominent American institutions freely conducting the practice, with more than 100,000 people being lobotomised during the next 30 years, small children being a favorite class of victim. The procedure became almost a kind of circus act. It is still possible to find video on the internet of a physician performing lobotomies on children on live television programs. A ten year-old boy would be positioned in a chair, the doctor would insert a tool like a simple awl into the corner of his eye, push it from there into the child's brain, and sever the frontal cortex, then pronouncing the boy cured of whatever ailment he apparently suffered.
Lobotomies disappeared for a short time then reappeared during the 1970s and 1980s as a favorite conditioning treatment for political dissidents. The FBI didn't only kill or imprison these thorns in their side. One favorite method that seems to have atogether escaped from American history books is the process of what was termed "psychosurgery", the performance of frontal lobotomies on American political dissidents. Three Harvard University professors put forward the thesis that individuals who engage in civil disobedience possessed defective or damaged brain cells, receiving enormous funding for almost 600 "research projects dealing with behavior modification". These 600 'projects' were performed on American citizens campaigning against racial discrimination, who were first arrested and imprisoned on trumped-up charges then subjected to these medical procedures against their will, and who all became virtual zombies from the procedure. The doctors went so far as to recommend that "screening centers" be established throughout the nation to identify and "treat" all emerging political dissidents and activists, fully aware that lobotomies would be an effective instrument of repression and social control. A bit later, the US military subjected many war veterans to undergo forced lobotomies as a cure for battle stress, invariably turning them into vegetables.
But it went far beyond this, with virtually every kind of medical research and experimentation being performed on unwitting civilians who mostly had no idea what was happening to them, and who very frequently died from the process. The human experiments involved physicians exposing civilians to every kind of disease or toxin, including radiation, cancers, venereal diseases, infectious agents of every kind, to say nothing of chemical and bio-warfare pathogens. Individuals were injected with everything from live cancer cells to cow's blood, "to see what would happen". In many cases, records were either not kept or were destroyed, so much of the truth will never be known, but millions and tens of millions of civilians were exposed, and at least hundreds of thousands if not millions, died either immediately or eventually. And in all the decades of these experiments, not a single person was ever held accountable for this immense trail of misery and carnage. Moreover, firm indications exist that the process never completely ended.
Joshua Perper and Stephen Cina wrote a paper titled, "When Doctors Kill", on the topic of human experimentation. From that paper:
"In 1998, Professor Adil Shamoo of the University of Maryland testified to the US Senate that "This type of research is ongoing nationwide in medical centers and VA hospitals. These experiments are high-risk and are abusive, causing not only physical and psychic harm to the most vulnerable groups but also degrading our society's system of basic human values. Probably tens of thousands of patients are being subjected to such experiments (today)".
While these studies never reached the level or magnitude of depravity manifested by the Nazis and Japanese during World War II, they nevertheless deeply marred the image of American medicine. Unethical medical experiments continued in civilian and military research establishments unabated for 35 years after World War II and more sporadically into the early 2000s. This was in spite of the 1945 Nuremberg Code and American legislation that forbid (sic) unethical and involuntary medical experimentation."
I disagree with these gentlemen in their claim that American medical studies "never reached the level or magnitude of depravity manifested by the Nazis". The evidence is that Americans not only reached but surpassed the Nazis in moral depravity, and most certainly in magnitude, as you will see.
Dr. Lauretta Bender: Child Psychiatrist From Hell
Lauretta Bender was a neuropsychiatrist at Bellevue Hospital (among other institutions) where she "pioneered" the horridly inhuman use of electroshock therapy on children, many of whom were simply shy children but who were incorrectly, and quite possibly deliberately, diagnosed as autistic or schizophrenic so as to justify their abuse. To cover all the bases, Bender often diagnosed with "autistic schizophrenia". Bender even publicly flaunted what she described as "successes" in administering excessive and violent electroshock therapy to children as young as three or four, yet those successes were imaginary at best. The children subjected to her methods most often were shocked until they had seizures or lapsed into comas, then regressed into violent or catatonic states. Those who survived were returned to parents who called them "totally ruined", with many later committing suicide, being unable to function in society, repeatedly imprisoned and otherwise exhibiting destroyed lives.
A few of the children who endured her treatments and survived, have written to describe the horrible conditions not only during their "treatments", but of being forced to sing and act happy in the face of brutality. One such child wrote,
"I was one of 300 children involved in an experimental program ... I remember being dragged down a hallway, thrown on a table and having a handkerchief stuffed in my mouth so I wouldn't bite through my tongue and that it took three attendants to hold me down. I kicked, tried to bite my captors, tried to escape their grip. I wanted to die but I didn't really know what death was. I knew that it was something terrible. Maybe after the next shock treatment I won't get up, and I'll be dead. But I always got up. I memorized my name, I taught myself to say my name. Teddy, Teddy, I'm Teddy. I'm here, I'm here, in this room, in this hospital. And my mommy's gone. I want to stop fighting and die. I didn't know why I was kept alone in the hallway. I wanted to be with the other boys on the ward. Why didn't they put some other boy out there so I would have someone to talk to? They said my crying was a symptom of my illness, and maybe if I kept crying I would be there for the rest of my life. And there was no one there at night to hear me scream when the man came to rape me."
To read their stories truly brings tears to your eyes, but not to those of Loretta Bender who clearly knew what she was doing but to the end expressed no remorse whatever.
During Bender's experiments, children as young as three years old were given massive shocks daily for weeks, much more frequently and at much higher voltages than was then used even on adults. This program was in every sense completely experimental, and was commonly called "regressive therapy" or "annihilation therapy", which were attempts to erase the childrens' memories and replace them with new ones, which process was very similar to the "depatterning" programs employed by Ewen Cameron work in Montreal, a similarity that was not coincidental.
To the extent the media and medical historians have discussed Bender's atrocities, they have focused exclusively on her electroshock treatments, but there were many more atrocities applied to at least hundreds and possibly thousands of other children. Her work expanded quickly to include biochemical as well as electrochemical experiments, and especially cooperating with Gottlieb on the use of LSD on these small children. Bender also performed her "annihilation" therapy using electroshock, insulin and LSD, as well as another dangerous drug named Metrazol, on well over 500 adult patients and another large but undetermined number of children, at several New York Hospitals.
Bender admitted in a paper that she had been experimenting for years on at least many hundreds, and perhaps even thousands, of small children. In one paper, she wrote of one location, the Creedmore State Hospital, where she had "a resident population of 450 patients, ages 4 to 15, [where] we have investigated the responses of these children to lysergic acid [LSD] and related drugs in the psychiatric, psychological, and biochemical areas." Over many years, Bender repeatedly injected these children with LSD, amphetamines, psyilocibin, and other psychedelic and hallucinogenic drugs, looking especially for drugs that affected what she called "hyperkinetic" and "sexually stimulated" children. These studies were done without informed consent, on poor children who were captive in an institution, and who were very often and perhaps deliberately mis-diagnosed as schizophrenic or otherwise confined for questionable reasons and with even more questionable authority. Bender's LSD and other drug studies were funded primarily by the same CIA front company that financed Ewen Cameron, all part of Gottlieb's MK-ULTRA programs.
In a 1970 paper, she described the dosages she gave and the violent physical responses in these small children, documenting "autonomic nervous system disorders, pallor and vomiting, very distraught, breaking windows, sleeplessness, loss of appetite, and weight loss". She noted her extensive history over ten years in using LSD on children and that one of her superiors strenuously objected. In her words, "He was very much opposed to the use of LSD to produce psychotic episodes as a method of therapy, and we had some difficulty in getting him to let us use the drug on children ... If one is patient and persists with the drug, one can get most children to tolerate it very well ... We also used, as the years went by and new drugs came in, all of the [new drugs] ... The psychotropic drugs can be given in larger doses to children than to adults."
Bender specialised not only in LSD and mescaline, but in a drug called Metrazol, which produced violent convulsions. Albarelli and Kaye wrote of its use by Bender and also the CIA in some of their many such 'therapeutic' experiments. They noted that "during the same ten-year period in which Metrazol (also from Sandoz) was used by the Vermont State Hospital, patient deaths skyrocketed." The effects are violent, to say the least, the twistng and jerking "often resulting in broken bones, most often broken backs and necks, and joint dislocations are not uncommon." And this is only one of the drugs Bender was administering to small children.
Another important contribution by Albarelli and Kaye was in documenting some of Bender's contacts and associates, virtually all who were involved with Gottlieb's MK-ULTRA project, including Drs. Harold A. Abramson, Paul Hoch, James B. Cattell, Joel Elkes, Max Fink, Harris Isbell, Lothar Kalinowsky and Abraham Wikler. They noted Hoch and Cattell were responsible for killing Harold Blauer with that massive dose of mescaline; Abramson the man involved in Frank Olson's murder, Elkes, Wikler and Isbell from the CIA's LSD experiments at the Kentucky prison farm; Fink and Kalinowsky the godfathers of electroshock in America. They wrote, "According to one CIA document, Fink boasted that "an individual could gradually be reduced through the use to electroshock treatment to the vegetable level." This surely was information available to Bender, as would have been many of their other experiments. Albarelli and Kaye wrote a fine, well-researched article on this topic, titled, "The CIA's Shocking Experiments on Children Exposed -- Drugging, Electroshocks and Brainwashing". It is available online and I recommend everyone read it.
A website named stoppsychiatricabuse.org.uk, published another valuable article, which stated, "Torturing an individual and reducing him to the level of a vegetable, was found to be the ideal way to reprogram him for carrying out tasks like political assassinations." It detailed some of the extensive similar programs carried out in the UK, Australia and New Zealand, all using electroshock, LSD, various other drugs, sometimes physical torture, often rape, especially of females, all in the same quest for 'depatterning' and annihilation therapy. In Australia, psychiatrist Dr Harry Bailey managed to kill at least 48 patients before his CIA-funded facility was closed down. In New Zealand, children received electroshocks without anaesthetic, to their genitals and legs in an attempt to modify their behaviour – exactly the same practice used to torture political prisoners. In the UK, electroshock is still used today, even on pregnant women and children, with "the developing brain of the baby [having] 220 volts of electricity run through it".
The same website also wrote this, omitting the most important part:
"ECT was and is widely popular in repressive regimes worldwide as a means of subduing political prisoners. The Chilean secret police regularly applied electrodes to the arms, head, legs and genitals of its victims. A British doctor named Sheila Cassidy was repeatedly tortured on what is known as the parilla, a metal grille on which the victim was forced to lie naked and repeatedly electroshocked. This method of torture, also used in Argentina and Brazil, was used to maximize pain, degradation and helplessness for the victim. The violent muscles contractions of victims’ restrained limbs sometimes caused them to fracture. Some victims also died. Libya, Morocco, Vietnam and South Africa also used electroshock torture on political victims.
The part these authors omitted was the fact that all these regimes mentioned above, received their training in electroshock and every other means of torture and repression from our good friends the Americans, courtesy of Gottlieb and the CIA.
Bender was described as arrogant, argumentative, vain, proud, unreceptive to even obviously-justified criticisms, and apparently quite unable to recognise even the most obvious flaws and shortcomings in both herself and her inhuman experiments, and certainly refusing to admit any lack of either ethics or humanity in her experiments. The New York Times was as oblivious as Bender herself to the woman's monstrousness. According to their obituary written by Joan Cook:
"Dr. Lauretta Bender, a child neuro-psychiatrist, researcher and educator, was known for developing, in 1923, the Bender-Gestault Visual Motor Test, a neuropsychological examination that has become a worldwide standard. She spent many years researching the cause of childhood schizophrenia and was responsible for studies on child suicides and violence. In 1955, Dr. Bender received the Adolf Meyer Memorial Award for her contributions to the understanding of schizophrenic children. She was a staff member of Bellevue Hospital and senior psychiatrist in charge of Children's Services there, a post she held for 21 years."
Another writer had a different take on this: "Bender remained a respected doctor and researcher until her retirement and got a laudatory obit in the NYT which doesn't even mention her twinship with Joseph Mengele. Her work is still cited in papers on childhood schizophrenia despite her being a racist who "never wrote off black primitivity as a theoretical possibility" and despite the fact that she was f***ing insane as well as a child torturer."
In another series of experiments that lasted until at least the late 1970s, prisoners in Pennsylvania were used for extensive dermatological and other research. A Dr. Albert M. Kligman of the University of Pennsylvania led the experiments on behalf of the US Military, Monsanto, the Dow Chemical Company, and Johnson & Johnson. Dow Chemical wanted to know the effects on humans of dioxin and other herbicides it was manufacturing for the war in Vietnam, and to satisfy their professional curiosity Kligman injected dioxin - the highly toxic, carcinogenic component of Agent Orange - into 70 mostly black prisoners, leaving them untreated to see what would happen. The experiments were intended to cause harm, the subjects receiving dosages far exceeding accepted guidelines in order to determine the threshold at which damage occurred, after which the studies were buried. There were no follow-up studies after the tests, and all records of the prisoners' identities were destroyed. Dow Chemical paid Kligman handsomely for his work.
Even when recognising the appalling lack of ethics involved, the historical record is being sanitised by columnists making repeated references to cases of "skin irritation", or simply "pimples", as the only effects, ignoring the huge accumulated body of evidence of genetic disruption and birth defects produced in Vietnam, as well as multiple organ damage. Even a Dow Chemical official warned Kligman that the material "is highly toxic" and that even minuscule amounts (half a microgram, i.e. half a millionth of a gram) injected into animals produces "severe liver and kidney injury and is always fatal''. Yet Kligman was apparently giving doses as high as 7,500 micrograms, which is 500 times the dosage Dow Chemical authorised for humans, while claiming no "clinical evidence of toxicity". Since it is impossible that such huge dosages would produce no medical effect on humans, the most likely explanation is that the results were observed and the records shredded. Since then, tens of thousands of people, including war veterans and prison survivors, have filed lawsuits over their exposure to dioxins, claiming cancer and liver and kidney damage, and malignant tumors and birth defects in their children.
However, as with Lauretta Bender and so many other heroes of American medicine, the dioxin killings were the smallest part of Kligman's atrocities and the only ones mentioned in the literature, their history being sanitised to the maximum extent possible. Kligman may have become rich by developing a skin cream, but his greatest contribution to the world of depravity lay not with skin but with LSD and other similar drugs, once again a part of Gottlieb's MK-ULTRA program. In the early 1960s, the US military paid Kligman and his colleague Herbert W. Copelan, also a professor at the University of Pennsylvania nearly $400,000, an immense sum at the time, and the largest single sum ever paid for human experimentation. Their job was to determine, for a group of seven mind-altering drugs, the minimum effective dose necessary to totally disable or incapacitate 50% of a population, presumably by inducing psychotic states.
I would add here that due to his prior history, Kligman was one of only two persons in US history to have been permanently banned by the FDA from entitlement to test new drugs on human subjects, a ban that was widely publicised at the time. This is noteworthy because, immediately following the ban and its publicity, the US military and CIA paid Kligman the $400,000 and engaged his services to test new drugs on human subjects. To add to the issue, Kligman was not banned for the human atrocities he committed, but because discrepancies were discovered in his data, thereby lessening the potential utility of some of those atrocities. There is a lesson in here, somewhere, perhaps two lessons.
For these latter studies, the CIA provided Kligman and Copelan with portable buildings in the prison yard that were essentially torture experimentation laboratories, and for about four years they utilised many hundreds of inmates as guinea pigs in their top-secret chemical warfare experiments. The prison's contract was actually with the University of Pennsylvania who provided the scientists while the prison provided the victims and the CIA provided the money. Epstein wrote that the University had apparently already contracted with the prison to provide unlimited inmates for testing for pharma companies, so this was just one more contract. Kligman and Copelan claimed that none of their subjects suffered lasting harmful effects, though as Kaye noted, "documents revealed later would prove otherwise", those documents apparently revealing the inmates were extensively exposed to chemical agents that could easily cause permanent and irrevocable damage, perhaps mental as well as physical.
And, true to form, all parties involved, certainly including any government agencies as well as the University of Pennsylvania and, of course, the media led by the New York Times, are very busy sanitising the historical record and air-brushing the truth. According to Wikipedia and the popular press, Kligman is simply a man who became a multi-millionnaire from the invention of popular acne medication, "a prolific scholar" famous for "bringing scientific rigor" to studies, "a boy scout who had a love of plants" and was even "the captain of his school's gymnastic team". Denise Gellenfeb of the New York Times tells us Kligman, "the author of hundreds of scientific papers", may be remembered for using inmates to test "a variety of substances that included deodorants and shampoos", as well as maybe a few toxic things on behalf of "several government agencies". The University of Pennsylvania website praises Dr. Kligman as "an innovative, captivating teacher [who] inspired generations of researchers and clinicians … a giant in the field …". Dr. John R. Stanley of the University's School of Medicine claims Kligman was "innovative and very charismatic, and he inspired people ...". No detail on what he inspired them to.
A man named Lawrence Gostin, a Georgetown University law professor, said Kligman's experiments may not have been very nice, "but there was such an overreaction to it that virtually all beneficial research stopped", and that by focusing on outrages in prisons, "We froze out high-quality science". So by publicising Kligman's inhuman experiments, all "beneficial research" stopped, especially the "high-quality" science kind. And Kligman's remorse? Only the fact that he was barred from research due to "data discrepancies" which, he claimed, were the fault of inmates he had paid to do his record-keeping for him. "That was dumb", he said, his trusting reliance on inmates "very nearly ruined me."
For almost 20 years, Dr. Saul Krugman of New York University conducted large-scale studies at The Willowbrook State School for retarded children, primarily funded by the US military, the initial purpose of the studies being to develop a vaccine to protect US military personnel from the often-fatal ravages of viral hepatitis. Unfortunately, Krugman's strategy was to use many hundreds of retarded children ranging from three to about ten years of age as disposable lab material for his experiments. Since parents were understandably reluctant to have their already-disabled small children exposed to a potentially-fatal disease, Krugman would often apply coercion and extortion, falsely insisting that participation in his experiments was a prerequisite for admission to the state school. Poor working-class families needing this kind of child care were therefore under considerable duress and often left in a helpless position, though there is no evidence they had any useful understanding of what would actually be done to their children. The parents were typically required to sign a consent form that falsely misrepresented Krugman's procedures as "vaccinations" when they were clearly no such thing.
Having thus obtained "permission", Krugman would then immediately infect all newly-arrived children at the institution with hepatitis, then study the progression and effects of the disease, hoping eventually to learn if something might be done. His method of infection was imaginative, to say the least. Krugman would obtain feces from hepatitis patients, mix the feces into milkshakes, and feed them to the children, without apparent concern about the trail of severe liver damage and other disabilities and deaths, that necessarily followed his experiments. Krugman did eventually discover a useful vaccine, but at a terrible price in small human lives.
The historical record also tells us that many of the Willowbrook staff eventually quit their jobs in disgust over Krugman's experiments and his deceit in providing assurance to parents while killing their children, many later testifying to the extortionate pressure imposed onto parents. After the staff made public their concerns, a New York reporter conducted an investigation and published articles outlining "a host of deplorable conditions, including overcrowding, inadequate sanitary facilities, and physical and sexual abuse of residents by members of the school's staff." The school was then closed.
True to form, the establishment and media circled the wagons and produced a beautifully-revised though entirely false history of the man and his career. We are treated to singing praise of "Dr. Krugman's far-reaching achievements" with poetic descriptions of how, "in a long and elegant sequence of studies" he learned something about hepatitis. To be frank, I'm not entirely certain that feeding feces to three year-old children would qualify as an 'elegant' practice, but then nobody asked me to write Krugman's obituary. And we had even more pathetic justifications flooding the media. One Franz Inglefinger, the editor of a medical journal, wrote that "By being allowed to participate in a carefully supervised study ... the patients themselves benefited", though it wasn't immediately clear how a three year-old child drinking hepatitis-infected feces, and then dying, would have considered that a benefit. But no matter. In recognition of the far-reaching achievements from his elegant studies, Krugman was made President of the American Pediatric Society. And that's how we do things in America, the land of human rights.
Dr. Eugene Saenger was a radiologist at the University of Cincinnati who was contracted by the US military to collect some useful information on the effects on humans of full-body exposure to nuclear radiation. The military primarily wanted to know how much nuclear radiation a soldier could absorb on the battlefield. Saenger, being a true patriot, proceeded to collect poor black patients at the university hospital and, without informing them of what was happening, exposed them to the equivalent of about 20,000 chest x-rays in the space of one hour. After the vomiting, bleeding, convulsions and other normal responses to intense overdoses of radiation, all the patients died. Many of these were small children. The official number is often quoted in the 80s and sometimes 100, but the actual total is more likely over 200. Saenger presented signed consent forms testifying to the childrens' willing participation in their own demise, but it was later learned that the signatures on the forms had all been forged.
One physician wrote that "What happened here is one of the worst things this government has ever done to its citizens in secret", but Saenger claimed his only purpose had been to improve treatment and survival rates, and that "none of the deaths" had been caused by his radiation. Nevertheless, the courts disagreed and lawsuits against Saenger, the University of Cincinnati and the US military, were successful, at least for the surviving families of the victims. But no matter. The Radiological Society of North America gave Dr. Saenger a gold medal for his "career achievements" in helping to reduce the nation's surplus poor.
Saenger wasn't the only physician performing similar experiments, and this set of experiments was by no means the only one he performed. Authoritative sources document that during a period of perhaps 20 years, more than 4,000 similar radiation experiments were conducted on tens of thousands of Americans by physicians funded by the US military. The historical record is so fragmented and the practice so widespread, the documents so often destroyed and follow-ups so seldom performed that there is no way to know the resulting toll of disabilities, ruined lives and families, and of deaths. The man was arrogant to the end, claiming, "These people were sick. We gave them this treatment to see . . . whether we could improve their condition." One would think that after the first 50% of the subjects expired within weeks, it might have occurred to Saenger that their condition was not improving, but then maybe things are different in America.
Ryan Grim of the Huffington Post wrote a good article titled "American Mengele", in which he added a poignant note of the solemn obligation felt by the University of Cincinnati toward the victims of their sponsored radiation experiments, and their eloquent expression of that sentiment. In his article, he wrote of a memorial erected by the University to commemorate the victims of Saenger's atrocities conducted on their premises. The lovely memorial is situated behind a dumpster and up a short set of cracked concrete steps surrounded by weeds between the hospital's kitchen and its parkade. To quote Grimm, "There, between the hospital's backside and its looming parking garage, beneath a shaggy maple tree, was a small plaque set a foot and a half off the ground. It read: "Dedicated to the Patients of the Radiation Experimentation." Below, in tiny print, were the names of over 170 "patients" whose involvement in the "Radiation Experimentation" would prove to be their last act on earth." Grim ended by stating "The number of Americans murdered by Dr. Saenger's research remains in dispute because much of the evidence that could have been used to implicate the hospital and the DOD was destroyed. But this much we know: the hospital was paid over $850,000."
The New York Times published an interesting obituary on Dr. Saenger, beginning with the claim that his research "contributed to the establishment of radiation safety standards for patients", though it wasn't immediately clear how frying a pregnant woman with radiation helped to establish a safety standard. Another obituary claimed that a major theme of Saenger's "distinguished career" was toward "the responsible use of radiation in medicine", and that he became a leader in the "risk-benefit analysis of employing radiation" in hospitals. It's not easy to respond to vacuous claims like this. The risk-benefit portion in Saenger's experiments is obvious - much benefit to the military and no personal risk to him, but how do we equate the responsible use of radiation with overdoses that kill every patient? Many articles on this man take note of the fact that he apparently was "one of the international experts called in to assess the hazards" of the Chernobyl nuclear plant disaster in the Soviet Union in 1986. I must say my first thought in reading this comment was that someone should have called in some experts to assess the hazards a bit closer to home.
In this case as in all others the historical record is being air-brushed and Photo-shopped to sanitise the perpetrators of atrocities and the institutions that supported them. Media reports and medical or historical textbooks consistently make claims of good intentions, yet it is abundantly clear that Saenger knew full well he was involved in a grand deceit which the media now do their best to conceal. Saenger wrote in a staff memo that "... physicians, nurses and ward personnel are instructed not to discuss [symptoms of radiation poisioning] with the patient. Do not ask the patient whether he has these symptoms." Even more, hospital staff were expressly forbidden to inform test subjects that they could expect "death from bone marrow failure within 40 days." And in his study summaries to the military, Saenger made it very clear the patients were not to be informed of what would be done to them. He wrote, "The patient is told that he is to receive treatment to help his sickness. There is no discussion of [lethality] resulting from the treatment."
One columnist wrote, "Depending on what you’re reading, Dr. Eugene Saenger is either a hero or a monster.", noting that the real purpose of his experiments was simply to determine the maximum radiation doses to which humans could be exposed, the levels at which permanent severe damage and death occurred. Saenger complied, to the death. Moreover, there is some evidence that it was Saenger who approached the military with a proposal for this study, claiming the information gained "would be useful on the nuclear battlefield". In this study as in so many others, deaths were valuable because the cadavers could be used for full autopsies which would provide much more information. Due to the obviously terminal intent of the experiment, the clear fact that the subjects were all expendable and meant to die, there was a Congressional hearing convened. As one would expect, documents were shredded in advance, everybody lied, and the entire affair was once again swept under the carpet with the illusion yet again of the nation having had the courage to face its sins.
In the early 1960s, the US media were abuzz with headlines and stories about a physician named Dr. Chester Southam who had been injecting and transplanting live cancer cells and cancerous material into hundreds of unsuspecting victims for more than a decade, in secretive research financed partially by the National Institute of Health (which also sponsored the Tuskegee syphilis study), and apparently with funding from the US military. In retrospect, and connecting all the dots, it appears Southam's work was almost certainly done in conjunction with Eugene Saenger's radiation work and other experiments conducted at around the same time, and quite probably part of the CIA's MK-ULTRA project.
Southam was an immunologist working at the Sloan-Kettering Hospital and had organised a research project at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital in New York, ostensibly to evaluate human immune responses to cancers. Several of his staff refused to participate, resigned in protest, and took their story to the media. The ensuing firestorm of outrage put an end to Southam's experiments, but rather too late for most of his victims. But Southam didn't begin his experiments at the hospital. Instead, years earlier, he began injecting live cancer cells and transplanting malignant tissue into hundreds of prisoners at the Ohio State Prison. He later claimed he "wanted to know for sure" if cancer was contagious, and so used inmates as test platforms for his theories. There is evidence that he began even earlier than this, initiating similar experiments at Sloan-Kettering where he worked, then dramatically expanded his experiments to the prison and eventually the Jewish hospital.
Southam was obviously well aware of the risk of causing cancers in his victims, but had an idea that the immune systems of healthy individuals might reject cancerous cells and wanted to test his theories. He was very careful to keep his victims uninformed of the realities of his tests, telling some they were receiving "cells" of some kind but with no mention of their malignant and potentially lethal nature. In most cases, Southam apparently convinced officials his work had no need for consent, nor even that victims needed to know what was being done to them. He later claimed he simply "didn't want to frighten" his victims with talk of cancer, then astonishingly stated he had no need to disclose any information to the patients because he wasn't their doctor. Wikipedia foolishly, dishonestly, and entirely without evidence, claims Southam's inmates were "a group of willing men", all perfectly healthy, who eagerly wanted to be injected with live cancer cells because they felt "it was a way to return their debt to society". Just so it doesn't go unsaid, I doubt very much there were many inmates so overcome with suicidal remorse over their crimes they wanted to enhance their punishment by dying from Southam's cancers. The public outrage was sufficient to cause Southam to lose his medical license but, this being America, his license was soon reinstated and he was appointed President of the American Cancer Society.
From here, the story becomes more intricate and murky, and this is where the CIA rears its ugly head yet one more time. Southam was not only infecting healthy people with cancers, but also with deadly viruses, in programs that began much earlier at the Sloan-Kettering hospital. Russian and other researchers had discovered that some viruses attacked cancerous cells, so Southam began by first infecting his patients to produce cancers, then infecting them with a range of viruses "to see what would happen". What happened was that many patients contracted West Nile encephalitis, many becoming seriously ill and some dying. And it wasn't only the West Nile virus. Southam also inoculated cancer patients with various other lethal viruses, causing brain damage in many of his victims.
With these failures, Southam just moved on to new approaches, some columnists lamenting that Southam is not revered today as "the father of viral therapy" or as a "patriarch in the field of immunotherapy", but instead a notorious monster who set new standards in inhumanity and the lack of medical ethics. Some media apologists claim that "Such deceptive practices were not unusual during the Cold War era", which claim is certainly true, but they claim also that "The concept of informed consent was still in its infancy", which is patent nonsense. Everyone involved was fully aware of the criminality of their actions, evidenced by their often desperate attempts to maintain secrecy. Many columnists and historians also claim the Nuremberg Code was regularly circumvented, which is true but can hardly be used as a justification or excuse.
The most serious part of Southam's cancer and virus experiments directly involve the US military and the CIA since both these bodies had been pursuing for years the possibility of exploiting immune system damage, or immunosuppression, as a weapon. It was for this reason that Nixon combined the National Cancer Institute and the Frederick Cancer Research Center at Fort Detrick, making them full partners in the US military's bio-warfare programs. It was here that the CDC and Fort Detrick, now fully staffed with depraved scientists due to Operation Paperclip, institutionalised the "critically important scientific activity" of a joint effort towards the cause and distribution of viral immunosuppression in mass populations, i.e. bio-warfare. As Edward Haslam and others have noted, Bill Donovan, the founder and director of the OSS (the precurser to the CIA), had been placed by the US military on the board of directors of the American Cancer Society, no doubt to both influence and manipulate civilian research for military and intelligence purposes.
There seems to be little cause for lingering doubt that the vast amount of research into cancers, viruses and radiation under the auspices of a fraudulent "Cancer Research Center at Fort Detrick were merely "a defensive cover for developing offensive cancer weapons". In a UP article titled, "Death by Natural Causes: CIA’s Bizarre Ideas for Assassinations", the San Francisco Chronicle stated, "At the height of the Cold War, the Central Intelligence Agency looked into ways to 'knock off key guys' through such 'natural causes' as cancer ... And, as related by several authors and historians, it was this work by Southam that produced the even more dangerous research experiments of crossing species barriers and combining lethal human and animal viruses as potential weapons for the mass culling of populations - which is where we are today, producing a multitude of GM-engineered pathogens suitable only for annihilating all human life on the planet.
Jerry Leonard wrote an informative, well-researched and annotated article titled "Cancer Man: The Government-Funded Cancer Injection Experiments of Chester M. Southam", which presents and explains in detail the circumstances and consequences of Southam's work with cancer viruses. The article is available online and is an excellent source if you are further interested. I have here a few excerpts from one of his articles:
"It is possible that Saenger's radiation experiments were conducted in conjunction with Southam’s cancer cell injections to determine the effects of the radiation treatment on the cancer transplant growth. It is also possible that some of the many government radiation experiments which have recently come to light ... were used to intentionally induce tumors or leukemias in human subjects for the purpose of attempting to isolate viruses which might then be grown in cell cultures for later use in ... experiments with humans." Leonard noted that similar experiments had already been conducted with laboratory animals.
The "anticancer viruses" tested on humans in Southam’s early experiments may have been the anticancer compounds which congressional investigators discovered were systematically tested on cancer patients during the CIA’s controversial MKULTRA testing program. If so, Chester Southam’s cancer transplant research may well have been covertly funded by the CIA through civilian research agencies in the same manner in which the bulk of the MKULTRA research was funded. Such a scenario seems increasingly plausible since recent investigations into the U.S. government’s unethical radiation testing on civilians have revealed that the institute where Southam was employed during his cancer transplantation research - the Sloan-Kettering Institute - was actively involved in conducting unethical research for the Department of Defense. The period ... coincides with the time Southam and his colleagues were publishing papers on their barbaric cancer transplant research ... CIA funding of these initial experiments would have great significance due to the type of cancer experimentation with immunosuppressive agents which followed Southam’s cancer transplant studies.
The goals and methods of Southam’s type of cancer research would have overlapped those of the military and intelligence agencies interested in chemical/biological warfare research. For example, Southam’s research provided a pretext for determining the capabilities and weaknesses of the human immune system - knowledge critical to both defensive and offensive biological warfare programs. Southam’s research also provided a pretext for performing various unethical experiments on human beings to determine their susceptibility to diseases including cancer and deadly tropical viruses.
Later research, which involved developing agents which could actively induce immune system destruction or immunosuppression for this type of cancer experimentation, would be even more applicable to biowarfare. (Researchers developed mouse and monkey AIDS viruses designed to knock out components of the immune system to assist in cancer transplants.) This is true since, if such immunosuppressive techniques could be controlled in humans and covertly applied on a large scale, they would effectively provide the ability to control the world’s immune system - thus allowing medical scientists to turn what might normally be relatively harmless human infections into fatal diseases and therefore biological warfare weapons."
Allen Hornblum wrote an article for the New York Times on December 28, 2013, titled, "NYC’s forgotten cancer scandal", which I found refreshingly frank. Hornblum said he tracked down and interviewed Southam, who was reluctant to talk about the case but was still unwaveringly defiant and unconcerned that his victims might have contracted cancer from his injections. When Hornblum asked "What if they had?", Southam replied, "If they did, we’d just cut it out." He also noted that "Curiously Southam claimed to be completely ignorant of the infamous international laws which were designed to protect people against the abuses of unethical human experimentation such as that conducted by the Nazis. When asked about the Nuremberg Code, Southam claimed, "I was unaware of the Nuremberg Code and its code of conduct"."
Hornblum concluded his article with this:
"Over the decades there have been numerous instances of equally cavalier researchers involved in unethical experimentation. Be it in mental asylums, orphanages, prisons, hospitals or the military, the lives of ill informed and vulnerable test subjects have been routinely placed at risk. And all too often those who knew better and could have prevented or stopped egregious and injurious acts remained silent. Pity that more doctors didn’t follow the example of three Brooklyn physicians who knew right from wrong, understood what was ethical and what was not, and had the courage to say, "No, I will not place a patient at risk"." But it could have been worse: He was never prosecuted and only received a one-year probation ... And he was far from ostracized by his peers; Southam was elected president of the American Association for Cancer Research just a few years later. Obviously, breaching a code of medical ethics wasn’t an impediment to career advancement in the 1960s."
One writer offered the opinion that it was only Southam's "enthusiasm for understanding the immune system" that led him to inject hundreds of healthy people with live cancer cells and lethal viruses. It seems we should conclude Southam deserves our understanding and sympathy rather than our condemnation. After all, he was just excited about possible new discoveries and meant no harm, and besides, these experiments "almost cost him his career". though I'm uncertain whether his hundreds of victims would agree. Not to be lost in this story is the appalling toll of human lives sacrificed by the US government and its various agencies and depraved scientists and medical doctors for the sake of gaining military advantage and domination.
Cornelius P. Rhoads
The story of Cornelius Rhoads begins with the Rockefeller Institute (who else?), this time in Puerto Rico where the Institute was not, as so commonly believed, providing medical care to the needy poor, but instead experimenting on them without their knowledge or consent and heavily promoting population control. Dr. Cornelius Rhoads was a prominent Harvard trained pathologist who, while working for the Rockefellers in Puerto Rico, conducted a cancer experiment purposely infecting his subjects with cancer cells, resulting in the death of thirteen subjects. Lederer wrote that, while referred to as patients, [Rhoads' victims] were "primarily clinical subjects whose conditions were studied to advance medical research", noting too that "Rhoads referred to his patients as "experimental 'animals'", saying "If they don’t develop something they certainly have the constitutions of oxen." Rhoads sought to experimentally induce the conditions he was studying in his patients rather than simply treat them."
The story of the victimisation and deaths came to light from a letter Rhoads had written. The official story that quickly developed was as follows:
On November 10th, Rhoades got drunk at a party and left to find his car vandalized, after which he returned to his office and wrote a hugely disparaging letter about Puerto Ricans. The letter was intended as a confidential note to a colleague in Boston, but Dr. Rhoads accidentally left the document on his desk where it was discovered the next day by a lab assistant who gave copies to colleagues as well as circulating it to newspapers and a wide range of other recipients. The letter said:
"Porto Ricans (sic) are beyond doubt the dirtiest, laziest, most degenerate and thievish race of men ever inhabiting this sphere. It makes you sick to inhabit the same island with them. They are even lower than Italians. What the island needs is not public health work but a tidal wave or something to totally exterminate the population. It might then be livable. I have done my best to further the process of extermination by killing off 8 and transplanting cancer into several more. The latter has not resulted in any fatalities so far... The matter of consideration for the patients' welfare plays no role here - in fact all physicians take delight in the abuse and torture of the unfortunate subjects."
One author wrote, "When you write a letter like that, it's best not to end it with "sincerely," but that's exactly what Rhoads did."
That letter was leaked to a Puerto Rican political party whose leader distributed it to the media and various other parties, igniting outrage in both Puerto Rico and the US, and forcing various investigations that were later described as (or proven to be) whitewashed cover-ups. The official version is that neither the government investigation nor one by the Rockefeller Foundation were able to discover any evidence that Rhoads had indeed murdered a number of local citizens. There was evidence that some of his patients had indeed died, but Rhoads was nevertheless exonerated.
After the scandal subsided, Rhoads returned to the US to continue his work at the Rockefeller Institute, where he remained until 1940 when he left to become Director of Memorial Hospital, which institution soon merged with Sloan-Kettering to become the Memorial Sloan–Kettering Cancer Center - the same institution that hosted Eugene Saenger and Chester Southam - with Rhoads as its first director, overseeing yet more cancer research. This event that placed Rhoads on the cover of Time magazine, presenting him as a world "cancer-fighter", though his role was rather different from the official description.
During World War II, Rhoads was enlisted in the US Army Medical Corps as Chief of Medicine in the Chemical Weapons Division, in which capacity he established both chemical and biological warfare facilities at Fort Detrick and Dugway in the US, and where he was engaged in several chemical weapons development projects. He was also responsible for a long series of experiments that exposed American soldiers and civilian hospital patients to nuclear radiation, in part for which he received the Legion of Merit award. One of Rhoads' research specialties at Dugway was mustard gas, the official narrative claiming that during this research a serendipitous discovery resulting from "an accident in Italy during the war", led to the use of this gas in cancer chemotherapy. This last claim may be true, but the mustard gas accident deserves highlighting. To refresh your memory, I will repeat the next two paragraphs from an earlier section:
Mustard gas was heavily used on many occasions by the Americans during both world wars, the government's strident denials notwithstanding. One of the more interesting occurrences was on December 2, 1943, when the German Luftwaffe launched a surprise attack on the Italian port of Bari, sinking about 30 ships and destroying crucial supplies of ammunition as well as much of the harbor. However, soon after the attack, reports were flooding in from the area of unusual medical symptoms in many hundreds, then thousands, then tens of thousands of civilians. The source was eventually traced to a single blown-up ship in the port, the USS Liberty, with its full holds of mustard gas confirmed as the responsible agent. The US military had, in a renege of their promises, secretly brought thousands of tons of mustard-gas explosives to the European war party and, in their desperation to cover their crime, refused to inform attending physicians of the cause of the massive casualties among the civilian population, leaving the doctors to eventually figure it out for themselves by which time it was too late for many of the victims. Countless (and uncounted) hundreds or thousands died, and many more suffered debilitating injuries.
The Americans made astonishing, if vain and inhuman, attempts to conceal the disaster entirely, but there were far too many witnesses and victims to enable keeping this secret. The Americans did their best at damage control by issuing statements intended for German ears that these chemical weapons would never, ever have been used except as retaliation in kind, though German ears were not reported as especially gullible at the time. Even more interesting was the damage control meant for American and British ears; Eisenhower and Churchill concocted a plot to (1) destroy all incriminating documents and (2) list all fatalities and other casualties as "burns due to enemy action".
To continue, on the website onlinelibrary.wiley.com, "A Cancer Journal for Clinicians", in Volume 28, Issue 5, dated Sept./Oct., 1978, is an unattributed article on the German attack on Bari and Rhoads' involvement, illustrating the event and demonstrating how easy it is to alter the essential focus of an historical event and to inoculate readers against broader truths. The article begins with:
"At 7:30 p.m. on the night of December 3, 1943, a dark winter night during one of the darkest periods of World War II, the age of cancer chemotherapy was initiated. The Allied air raid warning system inexplicably failed and vast cargoes of fuel explosives were hit by enemy bombers in the harbor of Bari on the southern third of the Italian peninsula. One of the ships, the Liberty, containing tons of high explosive munitions was blasted from the sea. Unnoticed at first was another element of her cargo: 100 tons of mustard gas contained in airplane bombs. The poison gas alarm was belatedly sounded and gas masks were issued. Casualties were originally thought to be suffering from shock after the blast and immersion in the freezing, flaming, oil-covered waters. It was not until later that it became apparent that many of the casualties were suffering from mustard gas poisoning. However, from this disaster, a chemical agent with anticancer action was serendipitously discovered. Dr. Cornelius Packard Rhoads played a major role in the investigation and promotion ..." (my italics above)
It was Rhoads who carried much of the responsibility for the development and deployment of the mustard gas explosives that filled the USS Liberty's holds, and it was Rhoads who was on the scene in Bari, witnessing the widespread carnage and advising the US military and government on the unconscionable cover-up that resulted in so many needless and painful fatalities. It was primarily for this that Rhoads received his Legion of Merit award. Just so the point isn't lost, the Liberty did indeed contain tons of high explosive munitions, but there was not "another unnoticed element in her cargo"; her entire cargo consisted of mustard gas bombs, these illegal munitions not unnoticed but undeclared and unidentified.
In the archives of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, I found a Memo to File written by a William T. Golden of a conversational interview he held with Rhoads on November 3, 1950. Among the topics covered in that memo, Golden relates Rhoads' discussion of his time in the chemical warfare service of the Army, where he spoke at some length of his chemical warfare experience and the fact that many members of his then current staff at Sloan-Kettering were from his Chemical Warfare group. According to Golden, Rhoads "pointed out that much of the work [in which he was engaged at Sloan-Kettering] ... is closely related to chemical warfare and perhaps not so distant from biological warfare matters."
The official narrative is that the Sloan-Kettering Institute was founded "as a cancer research center, in the hopes that an industrial approach to research would yield a cure", but that was never true, and the Institute never developed anything remotely resembling a cure for cancer. What it most likely did do was contribute immeasurably to the US military's search for biological and chemical weaponry.
Rhoads was given a posthumous award for his outstanding contributions, the citation stating, "It's safe to say that no one has contributed so much nor in so many ways ...", one of the ways not mentioned being fundamental development of mass chemical and biological weapons. According to others, "Dr. Rhoads was extremely influential, a pioneer, a medical investigator par excellence, a scientist, physician, and administrator. When Dr. Rhoads died, one of the giants of the modern era of cancer research passed from us." Uh huh. And when Sidney Gottlieb died, one of the giants of the modern era of Satanic monstrosity passed from us. And when Loretta Bender died, one of the giants of inhuman child abuse of the modern era passed from us. And when Shiro Ishii and Josef Mengele died ... well, you get the idea.
It is probably worth noting that after Rhoads' reckless attempt at professional suicide in writing the letter in Puerto Rico referred to above, there was a massive cover-up, not so much to protect Rhoads as to shield the Rockefeller Institute from a potentially damaging blow. Lederer covered this part of the event nicely, especially describing the involvement of a man named Ivy Lee, a quasi-management consultant of the day who on repeated occasions performed yeoman services for the Rockefellers in disinfecting their public image. One of these occasions was during the Ludlow massacre I described earlier where John Rockefeller sent in his private army to exterminate the entire work force that was striking at one of his mines. For Puerto Rico, Lederer wrote a portion appropriately titled "Spin Doctoring", in which she reported that Lee had access to major media articles prior to publication and sufficient influence to sanitise the stories for the public.
In the end, the public narrative referred to Rhoads' letter as a joke, "a fantastic and playful composition written entirely for my own diversion and intended as a parody on supposed attitudes of some American minds in Porto Rico", that was never intended to be mailed. One defender, possessed with a stunning imagination, wrote that Rhoads "wrote fictitious letters, intending to use the material some day in a novel". The story about Rhoads' having written that letter while inebriated at a party and after discovering a theft from, or damage to, his automobile, was fabricated by Lee, since independent investigators interviewed all present at the event in question, with no evidence ever obtained of damage to anything. Dates and other facts were omitted, mis-stated or fabricated to support the false narrative, and Rhoads was even presented as a victim of ungrateful Puerto Ricans. But, rather than being a satire, the intent of Rhoads' letter was supported by a second letter which was apparently far more incriminating and which was destroyed by the authorities upon discovery.
The Rhoads case, as well as the others above, illustrate how facts and history are distorted and rewritten by institutions, government, individual researchers, historians, and columnists, all supported by a compliant media always reading from the same script.
Experiments on Children
From the late 1800s and early 1900s - until the present - American physicians, most often with the support and funding of the US government and military, have been illegally experimenting with pregnant mothers, babies and young children, infecting them with various pathogens, and often killing their unwitting subjects in the process. New York pediatrician Henry Heiman intentionally infected mentally disabled boys with gonorrhea as part of a medical experiment, and Dr. Arthur Wentworth of the Children's Hospital in Boston performed spinal taps on 29 young children, without the knowledge or consent of their parents, simply to "discover if doing so would be harmful". Another prominent physician of the time, a Dr. John Roberts of Philadelphia, called Wentworth's procedures "human vivisection". Later, a California physician traveled to Hawaii where he injected young girls under the age of 12 with syphilis. Early in the 20th century there were already almost 50 reports of experimental infections of children with gonorrhea, including some where children were blinded from gonorrheal organisms applied to their eyes.
Medical researchers at the St. Vincent's House orphanage in Philadelphia infected dozens of children - to whom they referred as "material used" - with tuberculin, causing great pain and permanent blindness in many of the children. From the 1950s to the late 1970s, mentally disabled children at the Willowbrook State School in Staten Island, New York, were intentionally infected with viral hepatitis. Researchers at the Laurel Children's Center in Maryland tested experimental acne medications on children, and continued their tests even after half of the children developed severe liver damage from the medications. In the 1960s and perhaps much later, Dr. Saul Krugman of New York University conducted studies at a US institution for mentally retarded children, infecting countless small children with viruses obtained from the feces of hepatitis patients in order to study the natural history, effects and progression of the disease.
The Journal of the American Medical Association praised Krugman’s "judicious use of human beings" and, in a lovely display of ethics and compassion, the New England Journal of Medicine wrote, "By being allowed to participate in a carefully supervised study and by receiving the most expert attention available for a disease of basically unknown nature, the patients themselves benefited". Sure, they did.
The US military funded experiments like feeding radioactive food to mentally disabled children and injecting pregnant women and babies with radioactive chemicals to study the transmission of radioactivity and pathogens through the placental barrier. Beginning immediately after World War II, researchers at Vanderbilt University gave almost 1,000 pregnant mothers drinks containing radioactive iron, to determine how fast the radio-isotope crossed into the placenta. The mothers were told those were "vitamin drinks" that would improve the health of their babies, but most of the children - those not aborted or stillborn - died from cancers and leukemias. Beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, the US Atomic Energy Commission and the Quaker Oats corporation sponsored experiments where mentally disabled children were fed oatmeal containing radioactive calcium and other radioisotopes, in order to track "how nutrients were digested". The children did not know they were being fed radioactive chemicals, and the hospital staff and researchers told inquisitive parents their children were joining a science club.
At about the same time, the US government, through the Atomic Energy Commission, commissioned, sponsored, and conducted hundreds of radioactive isotope experiments at the University of Iowa on the effects of radioactive iodine on pregnant women and newborn infants. These uninformed victims were given radioactive iodine-131, knowing this would cause spontaneous abortions and infant deaths. Most women lost their babies, but that was the plan. The military wanted to autopsy the aborted fetuses to discover at what stage, and to what extent, radioactive iodine crosses the placental barrier. They filled newborn infants in their first hours of life with powerful radioactive compounds, to determine the effects of radiation on newborn babies, especially premature infants. Of course, a great many babies died in this valuable pursuit of military knowledge, the mothers never learning the cause of those deaths.
Dr. Alan Cantwell wrote that "in 1989 to 1991, Kaiser Permanente of Southern California and the CDC jointly conducted a measles vaccine experiment. Without proper parental disclosure, the Yugoslavian-made "high-titre" Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine was tested on 1,500 poor, primarily black and Latino, inner-city children in Los Angeles. Highly recommended by the WHO, the high-potency experimental vaccine was previously injected into infants in Mexico, Haiti, and Africa, but was discontinued in those countries when it was discovered that the children were dying in large numbers." The vaccine had never been licensed for use in the US, and the CDC later admitted the parents were never informed their children were being injected with an experimental vaccine that was potentially fatal. The CDC and FDA refused to release the raw data on these experiments.
Many years ago, Dr. Hideyo Noguchi of the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research published data on experiments where he injected syphilis into about 150 children in his search for a test for syphilis. I mention this because the Rockefeller Institute figures prominently in so many of the human experiments conducted in the US, perhaps especially those by the CIA and US military. The Rockefeller Institute was prominent in some of the most horrid parts of MK-ULTRA, including those experiments by Ewen Cameron in Montreal. Yet on the Institute's website, these same people, including Dr. Noguchi, are proudly listed as alumni along with the awards they have been awarded for the trail of death and misery that followed them.
Typically, the US government and American universities and hospitals accessed - and still access - as subjects and victims those least able to defend themselves, always beginning with the most helpless, the children in orphanages, mental institutions, foster homes and hospitals. There is a very long list of tiny casualties from almost every hospital and orphanage in the US, with the children having been essentially viewed as free experimental subjects for whatever test or study a researcher might concoct. This situation has been true for perhaps 100 years and has not in any sense abated in spite of all the propaganda noise about the necessity of "informed consent". The real truth of America today is that informed consent is necessary only from those with the money to hire expensive lawyers. There is a long list of prominent American universities and hospitals that have carefully excised all traces of human experiments from their histories. This list includes MIT, Harvard, University of Rochester, New York University, University of Washington, Pacific Northwest Research Fund, University of Chicago, Vanderbilt University, University of Cincinnati, Columbia University, and more.
As one example of this, beginning in the 1980s and likely continuing to today, the New York City Children's Services Administration began permitting the US government's National Institute of Health the "use" of foster children in dozens of New York children's homes in experimental AIDS drug trials. The children, of course, suffered terribly, and a great many died. In a BBC documentary in 2004 titled "Guinea Pig Kids", reporter Jamie Doran revealed the extent of the problem and detailed that the children were unwitting subjects being abused by the system designed to protect them. The NYC Child Services issued a press release admitting this had occurred but that the City had since discontinued the practice - in spite of evidence it was continuing.
For perhaps three decades in this child-HIV travesty, New York officials colluded with hospitals and researchers to use perhaps 1,500 small, helpless children for more than 50 experimental AIDS drug trials. The claim was that the drugs were being tested only on HIV-positive children, but it is ludicrous to suggest that all or most of the children in foster homes would have HIV infections. Whether the children were deliberately infected is not known, but this certainly wouldn't be the first time such a thing has happened. If the children tested positive, they were considered "terminal patients" and therefore open to all experimentation on the basis they would die anyway. This, in spite of the fact that the HIV tests were not known for their consistent validity. These toxic experimental medications were administered to infants as young as 4 months of age.
After exposure and a wave of public outrage, the New York City's Health Service performed an "exhaustive" internal investigation of itself and discovered it was exonerated. The authorities admitted that while some children did indeed die during the studies, and that while the deaths were "disturbing", they "didn’t appear to be directly attributable" to the experiments. When outside organisations wanted to conduct their own investigation and examine the medical records, the New York Health Department and the involved institutions were unfortunately unable to release any records due to "confidentiality regulations". True to form, the New York Times downplayed and whitewashed the entire episode, forgetting to even mention the huge number of child deaths.
Perhaps not all readers are familiar with the expression "canary in the coal mine". Canaries are delicate birds and, in days gone by, coal miners would carry these caged birds down into the mines on the theory that the appearance of dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide would kill the birds first, thereby warning the miners to evacuate the area immediately. For quite a number of years, the US military and various portions of the US Health Service used institutionalised small children in essentially the same way - as little canaries providing a warning to real humans to avoid various chemical or biological warfare agents and newly-formulated vaccines. If the children died, the soldiers and other white humans would now know to exercise caution. The authorities used small children in hospitals, orphanages, foster homes, as laboratory rats in an almost unlimited number of despicable experiments to test the safety (or lethality) of new vaccines or infectious agents as well as bio-weapons material. Few records appear to exist from these tests, and no information on the number of disabilities and deaths that resulted. They even tested small children on all forms of venereal disease and potential treatements thereof, frequently choosing small retarded children for these efforts, and inexplicably using institutionalised children of military veterans. Lederer referred to some of this in her book on Military Medical Ethics.
At about the same time, the American government conceived the badly-misnamed 'US Committee on Medical Research', which was dedicated to military medical ambitions that included biological and chemical warfare. This "Committee" provided funding for numerous research projects and thousands of medical experiments conducted throughout the US, coordinating at one time almost 140 different institutions in research on every kind of chemical, biological and radioactive warfare agent, as well as infectious diseases, and conducting their testing primarily on prisoners and children. The little canaries in the coal mines were part of this effort.
At Harvard University, researchers performed experiments with injected diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic estrogen, on pregnant women, who then experienced an abnormally high number of miscarriages and premature births. None of the women were told they were experimental subjects, and Harvard inexplicably continued to promote the use of this chemical on pregnant women. Following this, the University of Chicago wanted evidence to contradict Harvard's study, and so fed the same powerful synthetic estrogen to almost 2,000 pregnant women (without their knowledge), the chemical proving to indeed be harmful to developing fetuses, resulting in huge numbers of miscarriages and stillborn births. The benefit to medical science was that Chicago was then able to say to Harvard, "See. We told you so." The mothers never learned why they lost their babies.
In another set of abominable experiments carried out in the 1940s, this time without a clear cause, more than 1,000 unborn children received large doses of radiation. To accomplish this, the University of Chicago concieved a surreptitious program of administering to pregnant women "routine pelvic examinations" by repeated x-rays early in pregnancy for more than 1,000 mothers who were to bear their first child, then exposing any survivors to 5 full x-rays upon birth. It was estimated the newborns had received one year's maximum dose by the first day of life. Many died, many developed cancers. The mothers never learned why they lost their babies.
Beginning in the 1940s and 1950s, Dr. Lauretta Bender, a highly respected (but nevertheless depraved sociopath) pediatric neuropsychiatrist at Bellevue Hospital in New York City, performed extensive electroshock experiments on more than 500 children as young as three years of age, many receiving more than 300 violent electroshock episodes in succession. These electroconvulsive treatments were performed at several hospitals until the 1970s, resulting in many children becoming violent and suicidal from the treatments. Many died. When the electroshocks didn't kill them, Bender injected them with heavy doses of LSD and other psycho drugs. In none of the cases above, nor in other similar events, did any of these so-called government researchers face sanction for their crimes. Instead, the Department of Defense colluded with the Department of Justice to ensure no one was ever called to account.
Dr. Wendell Johnson, a speech pathologist at the University of Iowa, became famous for his use of orphan children donated by the US military after both parents (soldiers) had died. In one case, Johnson conducted experiments to see if he could turn normal children into those who stuttered. These children, who were small and helpless, and already badly traumtised by having both parents die, were utilised by Johnson as clinical experiment material. He subjected them to years of what was called "negative therapy", abusing them, criticising them harshly, trying to force them to speak with a stutter. He was not entirely successful, but he did manage to psychologically destroy dozens of lives, the children becoming withdrawn and uncommunicative, becoming runaways living in the streets, many committing suicide. One author wrote, "In recognition of his good work, the University of Iowa proudly named its Speech Center after Dr. Johnson, though they did call the experiments "regrettable"." The US military has never commented on its despicable role in supplying these Army orphans to Johnson for his experiments, and has refused to accept any liability.
On another note, there have been many tales of mistreatment and brutality inflicted on children in orphanages and reform schools in the US, but this one is different in that it appears the school officials had killed dozens or even hundreds of children in their care, during a period of many decades. This was the Dozier School in South Florida that was finally closed only in 2011 after an infamous existence of more than 110 years. In 2013 teams of researchers recovered human bones from the area surrounding the school, presumably from the many children who "disappeared" over a period of 100 years. Some former residents who are now in their 60s and 70s tell of brutal beatings and of many students simply disappearing without explanation. Often, the students or families were told the boys had run away or had gone home or had been transferred to other schools, but no evidence was ever provided to account for the missing children. The survivors claim that no bodies were ever seen and no funerals were ever held. For many decades, people in the community claimed they had heard of teens disappearing without explanation, but as one resident said, "People didn't want to talk about it".
And if we held any hope that things would improve, at least for children, we can abandon those hopes. Inexplicably, in 1997, the US Congress passed what was called the "FDA Modernization Act" that gave pharma companies an enormous financial incentive to continue using small children as laboratory animals for testing their new drugs, by offering a 6-month patent extension if these firms conduct their drug trials on small children, potentially offering the pharma companies a $1 billion gift while condemning yet countless thousands more of small children to abuse, disability and death. Even worse, a recent US government document listed the conditions under which experiments on children are permissible - without consent, though this is not explicitly stated. Among the acceptable conditions:
The research presents more than minimal risk, does not hold out the prospect of direct benefit to the subject, but the procedure is likely to yield generalizable knowledge about the subject's disorder or condition which is of vital importance for understanding the disorder or condition.
The research presents a reasonable opportunity to further the understanding, prevention, or alleviation of a serious problem affecting the health or welfare of children.
Experiments on Prisoners
Prisoners in the US have always been victimized for the sake of science, or indeed anything else requiring a helpless victim. By the 1950s the pharmaceutical and health care industries were growing rapidly in the US, accompanied by an increased need for experiments on human test subjects, with all levels of government approving the use of prisoners as medical guinea pigs - with or without their consent. In testimony delivered during Congressional hearings in 1973, executives of American pharma companies famously acknowledged using inmates in their medical trials because prisoners were "cheaper than chimpanzees".
Here are examples of a few such experiments from the Land of Freedom and Human Rights that should thrill you:
This Medicine Tastes Like Shit
That's because that's what it is. Researchers interested in a better understanding of how disease spreads, took advantage of the "no place to run or hide" prison environment to force inmates to swallow what they eloquently called "an unfiltered stool suspension" to see if drinking germs was as effective as breathing them. Their research report concluded swallowing was indeed more effective, omitting any information about why non-crazy people would do this.
Look Ma! New Family Jewels
One of the more imaginative, if not exactly delightful, experiments performed on prison inmates was by a Dr. L.L. Stanley, who was the resident physician at San Quentin prison in California and who, no doubt governed by the adage that "a happy sex life is a happy life", removed testicles from various livestock and farm animals and transplanted them into at least 500 inmates. We can presume that consent, informed or otherwise, was not an issue. In response to receipt of this information, the Washington Post was positively gushing: "Enter San Quentin penitentiary in the role of the Fountain of Youth – an institution where the years are made to roll back for men of failing mentality and vitality and where the spring is restored to the step, wit to the brain, vigor to the muscles and ambition to the spirit. All this has been done, is being done … by a surgeon with a scalpel." No reports on the species of offspring generated by these men with their newly-restored wit and ambition. Other American physicians attempted the transplant of livers and kidneys from chimpanzees into human prisoners - without apparent success.
Do Superman's Glow in the Dark Too?
In the late 1960s, University of Washington researcher Dr. C. Alvin Paulsen entered into a private contract with the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), for which he and Dr. Carl G. Heller received $1.6 million in funding. Their job was to irradiate the testicles of hundreds of prisoners to determine the effects of radiation on testicular function, specifically to learn what doses would render the men permanently sterile. Heller so enjoyed this kind of research on helpless subjects, he conducted his own similar experiments at another state prison. Paulsen said, "Prisoners were considered ideal subjects because ... they were a population that wasn’t going anywhere".
The tests were mostly conducted with the by-then accepted level of fraud and deceit, meaning the men were never informed of the full nature of the experiments nor of the potentially permanent and even fatal consequences. They also had no clear understanding of the levels of radiation to which they would be exposed. Heller admitted he "didn't warn them of all the dangers because I didn't want to frighten them."
One former inmate recalls Paulsen describing the test as just "glorified chest X-rays", and that he would receive only 400 rads of radiation. Unfortunately, Paulsen neglected to tell him that 1 rad was equal to about 6 chest X-rays and that his testicles would therefore receive the equivalent of about 2,400 chest X-rays all at one time. For another comparison of exposure, a diagnostic X-ray is about .01 rad, while the maximum safety limit for nuclear workers is 5 rads a year, or the equivalent of about 500 X-rays per year. Some prisoners' testicles received nearly 400 rads, or almost 40,000 X-rays, in a few minutes. It's not a surprise that some inmates after 20 years still complain that their testicles glow in the dark.
Most of the men were of course rendered sterile, though fertility was restored for some after a period of years. Paulsen was recorded as having said, "Gee, this was longer than it would take for a dog to recover ... men were very sensitive to short-term sterility". What a surprise. When these inmates later left prison and had children, many had offspring born with severe birth defects. Some of Paulsen's victims died, while others suffered various cancers or permanent and debilitating medical conditions. The AEC at the time stated they meant to conduct long-term follow-up medical exams "to ensure the men didn't develop tumors or other problems", but they became busy with making nuclear bombs and forgot.
It was interesting that NASA was sufficiently interested to learn more about the potential effects of radiation on their astronauts' testicles, that NASA officials and some astronauts even attended Heller's informational meetings, but then failed to appear for the actual radiation sessions. No idea why.
Paulsen was arrogantly unapologetic to the end, displaying no remorse or even responsibility for the pain and often permanent disabilities and suffering his experiments inflicted, claiming he did no wrong. Also, and very strangely, Paulsen objected to follow-up exams, saying they were unnecessary for medical reasons, and apparently refused to participate. Today, after huge lawsuits, the government will pay each victim about $50,000, but that may not be simple because Paulsen refuses to release his records containing the names of his victims and their exposures, perhaps because something even more sinister is lurking in those documents.
In terms of the victimisation of civilians, one of the largest single programs ever conducted by the US, was a joint effort between the military and Secretary of State Cordell Hull to find anti-malaria drugs. No idea why the State Department would be involved, but they gathered almost 1,000 patriotic, America-loving inmates from several prisons around the country and infected them all with the most virulent strain of malaria, then attempted various cures - most of which had no effect. The men were told only that they were "helping the war effort", and their supposed eagerly-signed consent forms proved to have all been fabricated - most likely by the same people who manufactured the stories about the millions of proud American boys being willing and eager to sacrifice their lives in a war nobody except Roosevelt wanted. In a similar experiment, four hundred convicts in Chicago were infected with malaria to study the curative effects of new drugs, those curative effects unfortunately being minimal to none. Nazi doctors later put on trial at Nuremberg cited this American study as a precedent in defending their own actions.
I have not yet concluded my research and we may never know for sure, but there are so many events of this kind that it is at least possible that during the Second World War, US prisons had more casualties than did the US military.
The US Navy sponsored an experiment where Harvard University biochemist Edward Cohn injected 64 Massachusetts prisoners with cow blood, to "see what would happen". No report on what actually did happen, but it couldn't have been good. Actually, later reports surfaced with testimony that the injections of beef blood into humans was "catastrophic". Exactly what the US Navy learned from this, I cannot imagine.
And So Many More
Many military human experiments were fatal, and were expected to be such. US Army doctors in the Philippines infected prisoners with bubonic plague and beriberi. Professor Richard Strong of Harvard University intentionally infected Filipinos with cholera and the plague, without the consent of the patients, and without informing them what he was doing. Of course, the subjects all died, which was the reason they wouldn't have consented in the first place.
Harvard University's "Cool" Medical Experiments
While the American establishment and the Jewish-controlled media made much noise about German hypothermia experiments, American and Jewish scientists were conducting their own, and very similar, experiments, under a cloak of media censorship. At Harvard University’s McLean Hospital and the University of Cincinnati, Douglas Goldman, Maynard Murray, Dill, Forbes and Talbott, tortured and killed numerous unwitting and helpless people in their despicable experiments, pretending "to study the effect of frigid temperature on mental disorders".
They collected scores of mentally-retarded patients, stripped them naked and placed them between layers of a kind of rubberised blanket through which a refrigerated fluid was circulated, bringing the body temperature to well below freezing, and left them there for a week. The patients were initially given an anaesthetic to prevent their objections to being stripped naked and restrained on the platforms, the anaesthetic wearing off within a few hours, after which these helpless individuals could do no more than lie there for days, cold, hungry, covered with urine and feces, while slowly watching themselves freeze to death. Our diabolical Mengeles apparently enhanced the experience of their victims by subjecting them to electroshock therapy as well.
The few survivors reportedly suffered not only from permanent and excessive mental retardation, but severe emaciation with an irreparable loss of body mass in a pathology known as cachexia, in which the human body passes a hormonal 'tipping point' after which even excessive ingestion of food or intravenous nutrition results in continued loss of further body mass, inevitably ending in death. I'm not sure we need to use Nazi physicians at Dachau or Auschwitz as our poster boys for depraved inhumanity when we have examples like this so much closer to home.
These experiments were actually reported in the medical press of the time: (Goldman & Murray, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1943), (American Journal of Physiology, 1941). The University of Cincinnati even published a report describing a series of "Studies on the use of Refrigeration Therapy in Mental Disease". Lovely.
Tusgkegee Syphilis Summary
The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment was conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the US Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis under a pretense of the provision of free health care from the US government. Researchers collected about 600 black men, most of whom apparently were already infected with syphilis though none were aware of the fact, their participation in the study baited with promises of free medical care.
The program's stated goal was was "to document untreated syphilis in a group of black men for 6-8 months then follow up with a treatment plan", but there had never been any intent to provide treatment. Even after penicillin became known as a proven cure, the men were never informed of their diagnosis, and were not only discouraged from, but coerced against, seeking treatment that was freely available elsewhere. Branches of the US government established public health clinics throughout the area to eradicate the disease, but when these traveling treatment campaigns came to town, the researchers prevented their victims from participating. When almost half of this victim population registered for the draft during WWII, they were all diagnosed as syphilitic during their enlistment medicals and ordered to obtain treatment, but these same researchers prevented them from getting treatment, condemning all of them to a lingering death. Additionally, very painful and unnecessary spinal taps were frequently performed on many (or most, or all) in the study. All this so the effects of the progress of syphilis on the human body could be clearly observed as the men slowly degenerated and died.
The researchers recruited some black physicians and nurses to assist in the study, their participation intended primarily to assuage other blacks, and to palliate and share blame. There is no evidence the blacks who assisted in this so-called study had any idea of its real intent, but rather believed they were part of a medical experiment that was in the best interests of all poor blacks in the area. Some today take apparent satisfaction, if not actual glee, in dismissing their moral responsibility by claiming that most of the black medical community offered full support for the continuation of the study, but there were no black doctors anywhere concurring with a plan to watch blacks dying from syphilis when a penicillin cure was freely available.
Many today make the claim that the study was not secret or clandestine, that it was performed openly, suggesting full transparency and disclosure, that it published many reports and data sets throughout its duration, but these claims are mostly smoke. The 40-year program was based entirely on deceit and deception. In a February 1992 interview on ABC, Dr. Sidney Olansky, who was for many years the Director of the study, spoke of the lies told to the victims: "The fact that they were illiterate was helpful, too, because they couldn't read the newspapers. If they were not ... they might have been reading newspapers and seen what was going on." Researchers uniformly claimed the deceptions were necessary to ensure the men would stay in the study since they wanted to observe the course and the effects of this disease as it progressed from illness to death.
Two directors of the study, Dr. Oliver C. Wenger, and his assistant Dr. Raymond H. Vonderlehr, developed the inhuman policies of this program and intentionally deceived and misled the black victims in order to ensure their continued cooperation. They obtained the consent of their victims for the painful and dangerous spinal taps by telling the men they were receiving a "special free treatment". Dr. John Heller, who was the Director of this Project for the Public Health Service, and the head of this program, defended the ethics of the study not only to the end but far past the end. In an editorial on Heller, one author summarised Heller's real position as: "The men's status did not warrant ethical debate. They were subjects, not patients; clinical material, not sick people." Even the Nazis weren't so arrogant and callous as to take such a position. Heller said further, using the same arguments the Nazis used for their experiments: "For the most part, doctors and civil servants simply did their jobs. Some merely followed orders, others worked for the glory of science." The glory of science, indeed. This 40-year abomination was terminated in the 1970s when its existence was leaked to the media and a huge public outcry forced the researchers to stop. But by that time, almost all the test subjects had died, many of their wives had been infected, and dozens of their children had been born with congenital syphilis.
Some physicians and others learned of this study and brought their concerns to the authorities, only to face a stone wall of inhumanity. In 1996, Peter Buxtun, a San Francisco Health Service investigator, wrote to the Director of the CDC branch expressing his serious concerns. In response, the CDC "reaffirmed" the need to "continue the study until completion", i.e. they issued a firm statement of their intention to continue their program of deception and the prohibition of treatment until all the subjects had died and been autopsied.
It was Buxton who finally went to the media in frustration, resulting in widespread public outrage and condemnation, an immediate Congressional investigation, the rapid termination of the study, and millions in compensation paid to the victims' survivors. But, as always, those individuals responsible for one of the greatest human rights violations in US history, and almost certainly the longest-running, managed to escape even censure, much less the hangman. And even the CDC managed to escape with its reputation more or less intact, in large part thanks to its media friends who laid all the blame on various ephemeral branches of the US Public Health Service, instead of on the doorstep of the criminally-conceived CDC where it belonged.
In addition to the Nuremberg Code of the late 1940s, the Helsinki Declaration was adopted worldwide in 1964, specifying that any experiments involving humans required the "informed consent" of the participants, which treaty should have dictated a re-evaluation of the protocols at Tuskegee. But, since the CDC had long been granted effective immunity from both domestic and international law, and had already been involved in violations more abominably wicked than syphilis, nobody there was interested in either Codes or Declarations. The CBS journalist Harry Reasoner accurately described Tuskegee as an experiment that "used human beings as laboratory animals in a long and inefficient study of how long it takes syphilis to kill someone."
In 1997, fully twenty-five years after this 40-year tragedy was revealed to the public, then-President Clinton finally apologised on behalf of the US government, and held a pathetic ceremony at the White House for surviving Tuskegee study participants - of whom there were only eight of the 600 remaining alive, most of whom refused to attend. And that's how we do it in America when we're caught with our hands in the money jar. Wait a few decades until all the smoke has blown away, then turn a deplorable crime into a media event.
Guatemala Syphilis Summary
This was a truly astonishing event, an enormous crime against humanity planned at the highest levels of the US Department of Health and inflicted on a helpless and impoverished nation. The US government hatched a plan to use Guatemala as an enormous field laboratory and thousands of its citizens as lab rats. The US Health Service was at the time interested in researching syphilis and similar diseases, but were experiencing slow progress working with small animals in the confines of a laboratory. The government had conducted limited experiments on humans, generally on the helpless such as inmates in prisons, attempting to infect large populations with these diseases so as to better study them, but again without reliable results and were forced to abandon their experiments. The Directors of the US Health Service wanted to abandon animal testing and conduct massive experiments on live human population samples but this had become virtually impossible in the US since the enormous scandals in prior decades when American scientists deliberately infected large population samples by vaccinating them with various pathogens. Since then, almost all testing had been limited to animals. However, live human trials were deemed necessary and, since such experiments were considered "ethically impossible" to conduct within American borders, the US Health Service did what US pharma companies do today - they exported an unethical, illegal - and eventually fatal - human experiment to a poor and unsuspecting country.
Guatemala was ideal for this purpose since it was entirely under the control of the US government, economically, politically and militarily. At the time, the US-owned United Fruit Company owned more than half of all the arable land in Guatemala, its railways and ports, and controlled most of the economy, with the US military and State Department controlling almost everything else, freely overthrowing and replacing the nation's governments at will. US banks controlled all the nation's cash reserves, making unconscionable millions by investing in New York real estate while paying the country only a tiny interest.
Hence, our Guatemala Syphilis experiment in which, between 1946 and 1948, US government health officials gathered nearly 6,000 of the powerless and defenceless: prisoners, mental patients, and nearly 1,500 children, as well as prostitutes, soldiers and others, deliberately infecting most of them with syphilis, gonorrhea, and a variety of other diseases of varying lethality. Of course, none of the victims knew what was happening, nor did they give consent to their participation. Most of the infected were not treated, and eventually almost all died. But in the end, apparently this massive study produced no useful medical information, and the records were buried and forgotten. The official story is that 83 of the victims died, but that is a massive lie of omission. The 83 listed deaths occurred during the first few years of the study when the Americans were still in Guatemala and still maintaining at least sloppy records. But diseases like syphilis do not kill quickly. They kill slowly and painfully, often requiring decades to complete their work of first destroying the victim's soft tissue and bones, then covering the body with horrible yellow ulcers, later provoking blindess, total disability, heart failure and death. In later years, almost all 6,000 died.
This unconscionable travesty was planned by those at the very top of US medical society and the US miltary. The US Surgeon-General, the US Attorney-General, the Presidents of the American Medical Association and the National Academy of Sciences, the head of the US National Institute of Health, the Chairman of the National Research Council Subcommittee, the top medical officials from the US Army and Navy, the Rockefeller Foundation that funded much of this work, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and a wide range of medical experts from Harvard University, Johns Hopkins, the University of Rochester, the University of Pennsylvania, and more. Of the names worth remembering in this context, Dr. John C. Cutler would head the list, followed by Drs. Joseph Earle Moore and John F. Mahoney. John Cutler headed this experiment.
The "experiments" involved much more than simply infecting the victims with venereal diseases; they were injected with many kinds of "animal fluids and tissues", and a large but undocumented number of individuals had syphilis injected directly into their brain stems on the pretense of looking for a cure for epilepsy. Nearly 1,500 children, some drawn from national orphanages, some abducted from local schools, were used in these appalling experiments, which often included injecting syphilis into lumbar punctures and brain stems. One victim, a woman still alive today, tells of being abducted by foreigners (Americans), stripped naked, laid on a cot, and ordered to open her legs for the insertion of a syphilis injection into her vagina. When she refused, she was slapped and beaten until she complied. She was 9 years old at the time. In addition, about 500 psychiatric patients were deliberately and repeatedly infected by intravenous or spinal injection, about half of whom eventually died. The fortunate victims died quickly from the infections, the remainder being left degenerate, deformed and in pain for their entire lives. Many infected their spouses and a great many of their children were born with congential syphilis or other diseases. Few records were kept, and many of those destroyed.
The victims, and the officials, were told they were receiving a vaccination to study to effects of penicillin, but that was never true. Virtually the entire purpose of this vast human experiment was to find an easy way to reliably and consistently infect massive numbers of people. Initially, Cutler used prostitutes, hoping they would spread the disease to the soldiers and prison inmates, but when this proved ineffective, he resorted to more direct methods of infection. The researchers attempted applying subcutaneous and intravenous injections, cutting the genitals while injecting syphilis into the open wounds, hoping to increase transmission rates. When these methods proved ineffective, the Americans obtained a higher success rate by injecting syphilis and gonorrhea directly into the mens' penises.
When those methods proved unreliable as well, Cutler moved into the mental hospitals, orphanages and schools, using the same subterfuge to obtain their consent to his experiments, with no indication that any of these institutions understood what was happening. Sexual exposure was not a realistic option in the mental hospitals and schools, so the Americans abandoned trivial attempts at infection and concentrated on direct injection of syphilis and other pathogens directly into the victims' brain stems. A needle would be inserted into the back of the skull, some spinal fluid drained, then syphilitic fluid injected in its place. This procedure was performed on literally hundreds of victims. One well-documented case was a woman named Berta whose brain was injected with syphilis and left untreated for months. As her health deteriorated, she was re-infected with syphilis again, gonorrheal pus was put into her eyes, urethra, vagina and rectum, and she was again re-injected with syphilis into her brain stem. Within a few days of this "treatment", the woman was apparently flowing with pus and blood, and she died a few days later. Hundreds of other hospital patients died as well. From the records I have seen, officials of these institutions believed the injections (inoculations) were a kind of medicine being administered.
According to Cutler's own records, only a few of the victims ever received treatment, although he later claimed all subjects were treated. However, the "treatment" to which many were exposed consisted not of penicillin but of other toxic chemicals, many arsenic-based, and which would later prove debilitating or fatal.
There was an enormous amount of subterfuge involved in this travesty in Guatemala, being one of the most appallingly deceitful and contemptible human experiments ever devised. Cutler did not initially infect anyone, instead going to some lengths to earn local trust before proceeding with his plans. He contrived plans for disease prevention in the military. He provided treatment to Guatemalan soldiers and medical instruction, penicillin and other supplies to the military physicians. Cutler even performed some diagnostic testing among children in schools and orphanages, to earn the trust of the government and to obtain access to child victims. By this method, he obtained military agreement to have hospitals send him prostitutes, whom he then infected by every means with every venereal disease possible and sent to the soldiers. The women participated without realising they were being infected with a variety of diseases which they were expected to then pass on to all the soldiers, while the soldiers participated without realising their role as lab material. From all reports I've seen, the women and soldiers were mostly abandoned to their fate after having served their infectious purpose.
As he did in the similar experiments in Tuskegee, Cutler admitted telling no one that the vaccination material being injected into them was a dangerous pathogen. He wrote to a colleague, "As you can imagine, we are explaining to the patients and others concerned ... that the treatment is a new one utilizing serum followed by penicillin. This double talk keeps me hopping at times ... a few words to the wrong person here, or even at home, might wreck it." His supervisor, R. C. Arnold, replied, "If some "goody organisation" got wind of the work there would be a lot of smoke. I see no reason to say where the work was done and the type of volunteer." Cutler's claim was that it wasn't the fact of violating all the laws that was troublesome, but the need for secrecy to prevent anyone from realising the real purpose of his experiment.
"I hope that it will be possible to keep the work strictly in your hands without necessity for outside advisors or workers other than those who fit into your program and who can be trusted not to talk." Cutler to Mahoney; May 17, 1947
"I’m writing this letter personally and unofficially to ask you ... it is imperative that the least possible be known and said about this project ..." Cutler to Mahoney; June 22, 1947
The simple facts are that American scientists had difficulty growing syphilis in their labs, little success in tests with animals, and so resorted to human experimentation. When the first attempts by the US Health Service to employ Cutler to infect so-called "volunteers" at the Terre Haute Federal Penitentiary (and similar attempts) failed, the US government concocted its scheme to inflate these hideous experiments to a massive scale and outsource the entire mess to a poor and ignorant country that was virtually a US colony where American medical witchcraft could be practiced without legal or moral restrictions. The US Surgeon-General at the time, a Dr. Parran, was quoted as gleefully boasting, "You know, we couldn't do such an experiment in this country".
In commenting on this American adventure in Guatemala, US writers and publications go to great lengths to deflect much of the responsibility and blame on the Guatemalan government and scientists, claiming the entire idea of infecting thousands of Guatemalans with syphilis and other STDs originated with a US-trained Guatemalan doctor who "offered his country as a test lab" for these deliberate infections, and that all levels of authority up to and including the President of Guatemala were fully informed and approved of these experiments. One article solemnly stated,
"Between 1946 and 1948, the United States government under President Harry S. Truman in collaboration with Guatamalan President Juan José Arévalo, with the cooperation of some Guatemalan health ministries and officials ... deliberately infected more than 1500 soldiers, prostitutes, prisoners and even mental patients with syphilis and other sexually transmitted diseases." Another states, "The records of the experiment suggest that Guatemalan government officials were fully aware of the tests [and] sanctioned them..."
But no evidence has ever been produced to document these scurrilous accusations. Even Dr. Parran openly acknowledged that the dirty details of the experiments "were hidden from Guatemalan officials", which is precisely what one would expect, given the extreme lengths to which Cutler and his researchers went to avoid disclosure of the truth.
As a side note, Cutler may not have kept complete records of the worst parts of his experiments, but his wife who accompanied him on this and other medical adventures, and who was a professional photographer, apparently took thousands of photographs to document her husband's work. Perhaps these photos included shots of Cutler injecting syphilitic pus into the brain stems of his victims. Apparently she acted as her husband's adminstrator, getting to know the repeat patients, maintaining records and photographing at least some of the more gruesome parts.
Cutler had absolutely no remorse about his reprehensible experiment and the massive eventual death toll, staunchly defending his experiments and actions in the media and in documentaries, and stating he had no regrets whatever about his 'study'. I find it difficult to avoid the conclusion that John Cutler was simply insane, as was his wife. In his determination to infect people on a mass scale with syphilis and other venereal diseases, he not only attempted everything within the normal scope of human imagination but went far beyond. He tried multiple methods on the same individuals, he injected syphilitic pus into the penises and vaginas of men and women, he injected the bacteria into their veins and eventually directly into their brain stems. When those attempts failed to produce infections on a mass scale, Cutler attempted to jump species barriers, repeatedly injecting the pathogen alternately into various animals and humans. The real possibility of creating a continental pandemic was apparently of no concern. On this topic, Susan Reverby tells us Cutler "did his best" to find reliable and repeatable means of infecting mass populations. His best, indeed.
These experiments remained secret for decades until they were accidentally discovered by American professor Susan Reverby while conducting research on similar experiments done in the US. The good news is that when the study was revealed, then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton apologized to the government of Guatemala and the survivors and descendants of those infected, calling the experiments "clearly unethical". She is quoted as saying,
"Although these events occurred more than 64 years ago, we are outraged that such reprehensible research could have occurred under the guise of public health. We deeply regret that it happened, and we apologize to all the individuals who were affected by such abhorrent research practices."
The bad news is that when the few victims remaining alive learned the truth of their conditions, they filed a $1 billion lawsuit in US courts, seeking compensation from the various participants, all of whom refused all guilt or liability, blamed somebody else, and claimed they would "vigorously defend" against the lawsuit. And, in one of the most cowardly and shameful acts in history, Hillary Clinton's State Department said,
"The United States is committed to taking appropriate steps to address that wrong, (but a) lawsuit is not the proper vehicle - and this court is not the proper forum - through which the consequences of this shameful conduct may be resolved".
Translation: we will do nothing. I must say I found Hillary Clinton's hypocrisy outrageous and offensive, her infuriatingly fake apology coupled with her typically inhuman denial of real responsibility and cold-hearted refusal of compensation, stating that civil courts - in the most litigious nation in the world - were suddenly "not an appropriate forum" to dispense the required justice.
Another factor that consistently rears its head in any exposure or discussion of this program of US government criminality that spanned 100 or more years, involves persistent attempts to whitewash one of the greatest sociopathic enterprises of all time by pretending that "things were different, then", that ethical standards have changed over time. We recently had a Dr. Michael Kilpatrick, a Defense Department medical adviser, telling us "It's very hard to try and put today's ethics on standards 20, 30, 40 years ago ... I think they were trying to protect people using the medical science that was available at that time." These claims are pathetically dishonest on so many levels.
For one, the Defense Department was not in any way "trying to protect people"; they were learning how to create weapons for biological warfare that would kill as many people as possible. For another, "the medical science that was available at that time" is irrelevant, perhaps not to their activities but certainly to their ethical standards. Dr. Kilpatrick is telling us that because medical science wasn't as advanced 20 or 30 years ago, forcibly infecting prisoners and hospital patients with cholera, cancer, the plague, dioxins, plutonium, malaria, syphillis, gonorrhea, anthrax, were righteous and ethical activities, that they appear repugnant today only because our our increased medical knowledge somehow mutated upward our ethical standards. A Jewish bioethicist named Susan Lederer at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, claims "The standards of the 1940s were "a lot murkier" than those of today. The idea that it was so clear in 1946 to me doesn't ring true."
I disagree. I grew up in the 1950s and I can tell you that in 1950 there was nobody - and I repeat, nobody - alive at that time who didn't know it was wrong to inject a pregnant mother with radioactive iodine, knowing it would cause a spontaneous abortion, just for the sake of examining placental radiation transference. In 1950, the US Department of Defense began a long program of detonating nuclear weapons in selected areas of the US, to monitor downwind residents for medical problems and mortality rates. Nobody can claim American officials didn't know it was wrong to conduct above-ground nuclear explosions near populated areas, nor that they didn't know it was wrong to tell the women subsequently dying from leukemia and brain cancers they were suffering from "housewife syndrome". Nobody can claim physicians didn't know it was wrong to infect thousands of people with syphillis and to refuse them treatment, so as to study the progress of the disease. And if ethical standards were really so different in those days, why were the government and the military, the hospitals and institutions, and all the physicians involved, so desperately maintaining a high level of secrecy? Why were they repeatedly expressing in writing their fears of public condemnation and lawsuits?
The behavior that today we categorise as monstrous, as morally and ethically reprehensible, as conducted by sociopaths and psychopaths, and as unforgivably criminal, would have earned precisely the same condemnation 50 or 100 years ago. It is not at all hard to apply today's ethical standards to our recent past, because they have not changed, at least not within the general public. In fact, in 1865, French physiologist Claude Bernard published a medical text titled "Introduction to the Study of Human Experimentation", in which he advised physicians to "Never perform an experiment which might be harmful to the patient even though highly advantageous to science or the health of others". And in 1900, the Prussian Minister of Medical Affairs published the Berlin Code of Medical Ethics, which stated in part that "all medical interventions for other than healing" were prohibited if "(1) the subject was a minor or incompetent, (2) the subject had not given unambiguous consent, and (3) consent was not preceded by a proper explanation of possible negative consequences." In 1907, Dr. Albert Leffingwell wrote, "At the beginning of a new century we are confronted by great problems. One of these is human vivisection in the name of scientific research. We appeal, then, to the medical press of America to beak that unfortunate silence which seems to justify or, at least, to condone it. Now and henceforth, will it not join us in condemning every such vivisector of little children, every such experimenter upon human beings? We make this appeal to it in the name of Justice and Humanity and for the sake of millions yet unborn." Where does this leave Dr. Kilpatrick and his foolish claim of "20 year-old ethical standards"?
It is also necessary to point out that the lack of morality and ethics in the US government and the military, and in the large corporations, has not changed during the past 50 or 100 years. The US government, the military and the CIA, and multi-national business executives, are precisely the same morally-deformed sociopathic criminals they were 100 years ago. I have mentioned elsewhere that US Big Pharma now outsources its most dangerous and/or unethical drug trials and experiments to impoverished nations, often with the active assistance of the US State Department, creating the same human carnage there it once did at home. Nothing has changed. But Big Pharma learned these tricks in the classrooms of the master of deception - the US military. As far back as the 1950s and 1960s, the US military and CIA were 'outsourcing' the field testing of various pathogens to other nations, friend and enemy alike. For one, much of the testing of LSD and other hallucinogens was conducted in Europe and Asia, these surreptitious tests of European civilians done under the code name of "Project Third Chance", while those in various Asian countries were code-named "Project Derby Hat". This is how the CIA managed to poison and kill almost the entire population of a town in France - and escape undetected.
The Times are Changing
While the US and Western media today are flooded with articles about Russia, China or Venezuela failing in some manner to respect various public rights, they are strangely silent on American violations both domestically and internationally, determined to keep the American and Western public in ignorance about these abuses and the increasing international condemnation of them. In early 2014, the US government underwent yet another severe two-day grilling at the UN on its abominable human-rights record, the news of which seemed to escape the attention of the major US news media. The UN committee "turned the magnifying glass the other way" and delivered a long list of hard-hitting questions and demands to the US government delegation, which appropriately reflected the growing international realisation that US rhetoric on human rights in no way matches its actions either at home or abroad.
The UN body roundly condemned the US on a great many human-rights issues, expressing what it called "deep concerns" about a vast array of serious abuses of which many, like rampant gun violence and endemic racial inequality, are as old as the country itself. The board specifically attacked the US government’s refusal to recognise the Human Rights Convention’s mandate over its actions beyond its own borders, which was described as a way of evading international scrutiny over America's widespread torture prisons and multiple other "extra-territorial" abuses that were illegal in international law. The charges and accusations included detention without charge or access to rule of law, the rampant torture of prisoners, and the increasingly prevalent state-sanctioned extra-judicial killings. In particular, the US government's global so-called "counter-terrorism" tactics came under heavy fire, including the indiscriminate use of drone aircraft killing thousands of innocent civilians and unlawful freezing and seizure of assets. The UN body especially condemned the Obama administration for failing to prosecute any former US government officials responsible for massive war crimes. It also demanded the US immediately shut all secret detention facilities and transfer prisoners to places where they will have full protection of the law, and also demanded the immediate declassification and release of the 6,300-page report into the Bush administration’s use of torture techniques and rendition.
The UN report also covered the domestic human rights situation in the US. In addtion to arbitrary detentions, the board particularly attacked the US' racially discriminatory stop and frisk practices, particularly the racial profiling by police, including the mass surveillance of Muslim communities by the New York police department. It noted the statement by NYPD Commissioner Ray Kelly that he "deliberately targeted and focused on [Blacks and Latinos] because he wanted to instill fear in them that every time that they left their homes they could be targeted by police", in a practice that federal judges had previously ruled illegal. The UN also discussed the prolonged solitary confinement and the massive problem of state-sanctioned rape in US prisons, the blanket surveillance and demonisation of Muslim communities, deportations to Haiti, the active suppression on US campuses of speech critical of the Israeli government's treatment of Palestinians, the widespread and clearly illegal NSA surveillance, and countless other issues.
The UN group also demanded a moratorium on the death penalty, noting the obvious racial disparities in the use of the death penalty in the US, which it claimed was imposed disproportionately on minority groups and the poor. It noted the case of Glenn Ford, the 144th person on death row in the US to be exonerated since 1973, saying: "One hundred and forty-four cases of people wrongfully convicted to death is a staggering number". It identified the state-sanctioned violence so endemic in the US, evidenced by the proliferation of stand-your-ground gun laws, and quoting what it called "the staggering figure of 470,000 crimes committed with firearms each year. It attacked the "incarceration mentality" in the US, identifying the massive and enduring racial disparities in the justice system with large numbers of black prisoners serving much longer sentences than whites, the severe mistreatment of mentally-ill and juvenile prisoners, the segregation in schools, the high levels of "state-engendered" homelessness and the criminalization of homeless people.
The US was clearly sensitive to the prospect of exposure of its large-scale hypocrisy on matters of human rights and sent a large self-defense delegation to this hearing in Geneva. The Americans, who usually ignore their human rights obligations and attempt to escape criticism by glossing over or blatantly whitewashing their multiple state-sanctioned abuses, were frequently and noticeably made quite uncomfortable by this act of public shaming. In response to the charges, the Americans were as always heavy on lip service and light on substance, making such fatuous statements as how the country was "continually striving to improve", and State Department lawyers claiming they were "disappointed" because the condemnatory report "was not a full analysis of the situation". Mary McLeod, a senior State Department official, responded with typical utopian disingenuousness in claiming "While we are certainly not perfect, our network of federal, state and local institutions provide checks on government", which of course they manifestly do not. Even more foolishly, she further informed the body that "Since the founding of our country, in every generation there have been Americans who sought to realize our constitution’s promise of equal opportunity and justice for all", conveniently failing to address any of the specifics of her nation's crimes.
In addressing the vast litany of America's international human-rights abuses and crimes against humanity, the same McLeod simply adhered to propaganda rhetoric while drawing irrelevant distinctions, holding that human rights treaties "do not apply to US actions overseas", dismissing with a simple statement the millions of deaths and countless other crimes. She claimed the US was "working to reduce the number" of people illegally held without charge in the many torture prisons, insisted that US drone strikes on civilians "were conducted in compliance with international law", and foolishly argued that the NSA was under "substantial oversight" by US government departments. McLeod further, and stupidly, claimed that US torture victims received "exceptional healthcare", insisted that the administration was taking measures to reduce disparities in racial sentencing and profiling, and claimed the death penalty was steadily declining. She refused to address the force-feedings of torture prisoners, stating only that it was her government's policy to "support the preservation of life in a humane manner" - while torturing it to death. Only Americans are capable of such fatuous lies.
Mr. Romanoff's writing has been translated into 32 languages and his articles posted on more than 150 foreign-language news and politics websites in more than 30 countries, as well as more than 100 English language platforms. Larry Romanoff is a retired management consultant and businessman. He has held senior executive positions in international consulting firms, and owned an international import-export business. He has been a visiting professor at Shanghai's Fudan University, presenting case studies in international affairs to senior EMBA classes. Mr. Romanoff lives in Shanghai and is currently writing a series of ten books generally related to China and the West. He is one of the contributing authors to Cynthia McKinney's new anthology 'When China Sneezes'. (Chapt. 2 -- Dealing with Demons).
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